ECCC-Report TR21-052https://eccc.weizmann.ac.il/report/2021/052Comments and Revisions published for TR21-052en-usMon, 12 Apr 2021 20:17:39 +0300
Paper TR21-052
| Upslices, Downslices, and Secret-Sharing with Complexity of $1.5^n$ |
Oded Nir,
Benny Applebaum
https://eccc.weizmann.ac.il/report/2021/052A secret-sharing scheme allows to distribute a secret $s$ among $n$ parties such that only some predefined ``authorized'' sets of parties can reconstruct the secret, and all other ``unauthorized'' sets learn nothing about $s$.
The collection of authorized/unauthorized sets can be captured by a monotone function $f:\{0,1\}^n\rightarrow \{0,1\}$.
In this paper, we focus on monotone functions that all their min-terms are sets of size $a$, and on their duals -- monotone functions whose max-terms are of size $b$. We refer to these classes as $(a,n)$-upslices and $(b,n)$-downslices, and note that these natural families correspond to monotone $a$-regular DNFs and monotone $(n-b)$-regular CNFs. We derive the following results.
1. (General downslices) Every downslice can be realized with total share size of $1.5^{n+o(n)}<2^{0.585 n}$. Since every monotone function can be cheaply decomposed into $n$ downslices, we obtain a similar result for general access structures improving the previously known $2^{0.637n+o(n)}$ complexity of Applebaum, Beimel, Nir and Peter (STOC 2020). We also achieve a minor improvement in the exponent of linear secrets sharing schemes.
2. (Random mixture of upslices) Following Beimel and Farras (TCC 2020) who studied the complexity of random DNFs with constant-size terms, we consider the following general distribution $F$ over monotone DNFs: For each width value $a\in [n]$, uniformly sample $k_a$ monotone terms of size $a$, where $k=(k_1,\ldots,k_n)$ is an arbitrary vector of non-negative integers. We show that, except with exponentially small probability, $F$ can be realized with share size of $2^{0.5 n+o(n)}$ and
can be linearly realized with an exponent strictly smaller than $2/3$. Our proof also provides a candidate distribution for ``exponentially-hard'' access structure.
We use our results to explore connections between several seemingly unrelated questions about the complexity of secret-sharing schemes such as worst-case vs. average-case, linear vs. non-linear and primal vs. dual access structures. We prove that, in at least one of these settings, there is a significant gap in secret-sharing complexity.Mon, 12 Apr 2021 20:17:39 +0300https://eccc.weizmann.ac.il/report/2021/052