ECCC-Report TR22-113https://eccc.weizmann.ac.il/report/2022/113Comments and Revisions published for TR22-113en-usTue, 16 May 2023 00:40:50 +0300
Revision 2
| Leakage-Resilient Hardness v.s. Randomness |
Yanyi Liu,
Rafael Pass
https://eccc.weizmann.ac.il/report/2022/113#revision2A central open problem in complexity theory concerns the question of
whether all efficient randomized algorithms can be simulated by
efficient deterministic algorithms. The celebrated ``hardness
v.s. randomness” paradigm pioneered by Blum-Micali (SIAM JoC’84),
Yao (FOCS’84) and Nisan-Wigderson (JCSS’94) presents hardness
assumptions under which e.g., $\prBPP = \prP$ (so-called ``high-end
derandomization), or $\prBPP \subseteq \prSUBEXP$ (so-called
``low-end derandomization), and more generally, under which
$\prBPP \subseteq \prDTIME(\C)$ where $\C$ is a ``nice'' class
(closed under composition with a polynomial), but these hardness
assumptions are not known to also be necessary for such derandomization.
In this work, following the recent work by Chen and Tell (FOCS’21)
that considers “almost-all-input” hardness of a function $f$ (i.e.,
hardness of computing $f$ on more than a finite number of inputs), we
consider “almost-all-input” \emph{leakage-resilient hardness} of a
function $f$—that is, hardness of computing $f(x)$ even given, say,
$\sqrt{|x|}$ bits of leakage of $f(x)$. We show that leakage-resilient
hardness characterizes derandomization of $\prBPP$ (i.e., gives a both
\emph{necessary} and \emph{sufficient} condition for derandomization),
both in the high-end and in the low-end setting.
In more detail, we show that there exists a constant $c$ such that for
every function $T$, the following are equivalent:
- $\prBPP \subseteq \prDTIME(\poly(T(\poly(n))))$;
- Existence of a $\poly(T(\poly(n)))$-time computable function $f :\{0,
1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}^n$ that is almost-all-input leakage-resilient
hard with respect to $n^c$-time probabilistic algorithms.
As far as we know, this is the first assumption that
characterizes derandomization in both the low-end and the high-end regime.
Additionally, our characterization naturally extends also
to derandomization of $\prMA$, and also to
average-case derandomization, by appropriately weakening the
requirements on the function $f$. In particular, for the case of
average-case (a.k.a. ``effective'') derandomization, we longer require
the function to be almost-all-input hard, but simply satisfy the more
standard notion of average-case leakage-resilient hardness (w.r.t.,
every samplable distribution), whereas for derandomization of $\prMA$,
we instead consider leakage-resilience for relations.
Tue, 16 May 2023 00:40:50 +0300https://eccc.weizmann.ac.il/report/2022/113#revision2
Revision 1
| Leakage-Resilient Hardness v.s. Randomness |
Yanyi Liu,
Rafael Pass
https://eccc.weizmann.ac.il/report/2022/113#revision1A central open problem in complexity theory concerns the question of
whether all efficient randomized algorithms can be simulated by
efficient deterministic algorithms. The celebrated ``hardness
v.s. randomness” paradigm pioneered by Blum-Micali (SIAM JoC’84),
Yao (FOCS’84) and Nisan-Wigderson (JCSS’94) presents hardness
assumptions under which e.g., $\prBPP = \prP$ (so-called ``high-end derandomization), or $\prBPP \subseteq
\prSUBEXP$ (so-called ``low-end derandomization), and more generally, under which $\prBPP \subseteq
\prDTIME(\C)$ where $\C$ is a ``nice'' class (closed under
composition with a polynomial), but these hardness assumptions are not known to also be necessary for such derandomization.
In this work, following the recent work by Chen and Tell (FOCS’21)
that considers “almost-all-input” hardness of a function $f$ (i.e.,
hardness of computing $f$ on more than a finite number of inputs), we
consider “almost-all-input” \emph{leakage-resilient hardness} of a
function $f$—that is, hardness of computing $f(x)$ even given, say,
$\sqrt{|x|}$ bits of leakage of $f(x)$. We show that leakage-resilient
hardness characterizes derandomization of $\prBPP$ (i.e., gives a both
\emph{necessary} and \emph{sufficient} condition for derandomization),
both in the high-end and in the low-end setting.
In more detail, we show that there exists a constant $c$ such that for
every function $T$, the following are equivalent:
- $\prBPP \subseteq \prDTIME(\poly(T(\poly(n))))$;
- Existence of a $\poly(T(\poly(n)))$-time computable function $f :\{0, 1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}^n$ that is almost-all-input leakage-resilient hard with respect to $n^c$-time probabilistic algorithms.
As far as we know, this is the first assumption that
characterizes derandomization in both the low-end and the high-end regime.
Additionally, our characterization naturally extends also
to derandomization of $\prMA$, and also to
average-case derandomization, by appropriately weakening the
requirements on the function $f$. In particular, for the case of
average-case (a.k.a. ``effective'') derandomization, we longer require
the function to be almost-all-input hard, but simply satisfy the more
standard notion of average-case leakage-resilient hardness (w.r.t.,
every samplable distribution), whereas for derandomization of $\prMA$,
we instead consider leakage-resilience for relations.
Fri, 10 Feb 2023 22:54:30 +0200https://eccc.weizmann.ac.il/report/2022/113#revision1
Paper TR22-113
| Leakage-Resilient Hardness v.s. Randomness |
Yanyi Liu,
Rafael Pass
https://eccc.weizmann.ac.il/report/2022/113A central open problem in complexity theory concerns the question of
whether all efficient randomized algorithms can be simulated by
efficient deterministic algorithms. The celebrated ``hardness
v.s. randomness” paradigm pioneered by Blum-Micali (SIAM JoC’84),
Yao (FOCS’84) and Nisan-Wigderson (JCSS’94) presents hardness
assumptions under which $\prBPP = \prP$, but these hardness assumptions
are not known to also be necessary for such derandomization.
In this work, following the recent work by Chen and Tell (FOCS’21) that
considers “almost-all-input” hardness of a function $f$ (i.e., hardness
of computing $f$ on more than a finite number of inputs), we consider
“almost-all-input” \emph{leakage-resilient hardness} of a function $f$
—that is, hardness of computing $f(x)$ even given, say, $\sqrt{|x|}$
bits of leakage of $f(x)$. We show that leakage-resilient hardness
characterizes derandomization of $\prBPP$ (i.e., gives a both \emph{
necessary} and \emph{sufficient} condition for derandomization). In more
detail, we show that there exists a constant $c$ such that the following
are equivalent:
- $\prBPP = \prP$;
- Existence of a poly-time computable function $f :\{0, 1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}^n$
that is almost-all-input leakage-resilient hard with respect to
$n^c$-time probabilistic algorithms.
Our characterization naturally extends also to the low-end
derandomization regime, to derandomization of $\prMA$, and also to
average-case derandomization, by appropriately weakening the
requirements on the function $f$.
Sun, 14 Aug 2022 11:05:23 +0300https://eccc.weizmann.ac.il/report/2022/113