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Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity

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All reports by Author Guy Rothblum:

TR23-081 | 1st June 2023
Noga Amit, Guy Rothblum

Constant-Round Arguments from One-Way Functions

We study the following question: what cryptographic assumptions are needed for obtaining constant-round computationally-sound argument systems? We focus on argument systems with almost-linear verification time for subclasses of $\mathbf{P}$, such as depth-bounded computations.
Kilian's celebrated work [STOC 1992] provides such 4-message arguments for $\mathbf{P}$ (actually, for $\mathbf{NP}$) using collision-resistant hash ... more >>>

TR22-124 | 9th September 2022
Oded Goldreich, Guy Rothblum, Tal Skverer

On Interactive Proofs of Proximity with Proof-Oblivious Queries

Revisions: 3

Interactive proofs of proximity (IPPs) offer ultra-fast
approximate verification of assertions regarding their input,
where ultra-fast means that only a small portion of the input is read
and approximate verification is analogous to the notion of
approximate decision that underlies property testing.
Specifically, in an IPP, the prover can make ... more >>>

TR22-052 | 18th April 2022
Tal Herman, Guy Rothblum

Verifying The Unseen: Interactive Proofs for Label-Invariant Distribution Properties

Given i.i.d. samples from an unknown distribution over a large domain $[N]$, approximating several basic quantities, including the distribution's support size, its entropy, and its distance from the uniform distribution, requires $\Theta(N / \log N)$ samples [Valiant and Valiant, STOC 2011].

Suppose, however, that we can interact with a powerful ... more >>>

TR21-146 | 19th October 2021
Guy Goldberg, Guy Rothblum

Sample-Based Proofs of Proximity

Revisions: 1

Suppose we have random sampling access to a huge object, such as a graph or a database.
Namely, we can observe the values of \emph{random} locations in the object, say random records in the database or random edges in the graph.
We cannot, however, query locations of our choice. Can ... more >>>

TR20-176 | 26th November 2020
Cynthia Dwork, Michael Kim, Omer Reingold, Guy Rothblum, Gal Yona

Outcome Indistinguishability

Prediction algorithms assign numbers to individuals that are popularly understood as individual ``probabilities''---what is the probability of 5-year survival after cancer diagnosis?---and which increasingly form the basis for life-altering decisions. Drawing on an understanding of computational indistinguishability developed in complexity theory and cryptography, we introduce Outcome Indistinguishability. Predictors that are ... more >>>

TR20-157 | 21st October 2020
Guy Rothblum, Ron Rothblum

Batch Verification and Proofs of Proximity with Polylog Overhead

Suppose Alice wants to convince Bob of the correctness of k NP statements. Alice could send k witnesses to Bob, but as k grows the communication becomes prohibitive. Is it possible to convince Bob using smaller communication (without making cryptographic assumptions or bounding the computational power of a malicious Alice)? ... more >>>

TR20-147 | 24th September 2020
Inbar Kaslasi, Prashant Nalini Vasudevan, Guy Rothblum, Ron Rothblum, Adam Sealfon

Batch Verification for Statistical Zero Knowledge Proofs

Revisions: 1

A statistical zero-knowledge proof (SZK) for a problem $\Pi$ enables a computationally unbounded prover to convince a polynomial-time verifier that $x \in \Pi$ without revealing any additional information about $x$ to the verifier, in a strong information-theoretic sense.

Suppose, however, that the prover wishes to convince the verifier that $k$ ... more >>>

TR20-058 | 24th April 2020
Shafi Goldwasser, Guy Rothblum, Jonathan Shafer, Amir Yehudayoff

Interactive Proofs for Verifying Machine Learning

Revisions: 1

We consider the following question: using a source of labeled data and interaction with an untrusted prover, what is the complexity of verifying that a given hypothesis is "approximately correct"? We study interactive proof systems for PAC verification, where a verifier that interacts with a prover is required to accept ... more >>>

TR19-176 | 4th December 2019
Gal Arnon, Guy Rothblum

On Prover-Efficient Public-Coin Emulation of Interactive Proofs

Revisions: 4

A central question in the study of interactive proofs is the relationship between private-coin proofs, where the verifier is allowed to hide its randomness from the prover, and public-coin proofs, where the verifier's random coins are sent to the prover.

In this work, we study transformations ... more >>>

TR19-074 | 22nd May 2019
Arka Rai Choudhuri, Pavel Hubá?ek, Chethan Kamath, Krzysztof Pietrzak, Alon Rosen, Guy Rothblum

Finding a Nash Equilibrium Is No Easier Than Breaking Fiat-Shamir

The Fiat-Shamir heuristic transforms a public-coin interactive proof into a non-interactive argument, by replacing the verifier with a cryptographic hash function that is applied to the protocol’s transcript. Constructing hash functions for which this transformation is sound is a central and long-standing open question in cryptography.

We show that ... more >>>

TR19-060 | 18th April 2019
Scott Aaronson, Guy Rothblum

Gentle Measurement of Quantum States and Differential Privacy

In differential privacy (DP), we want to query a database about $n$ users, in a way that "leaks at most $\varepsilon$ about any individual user," even conditioned on any outcome of the query. Meanwhile, in gentle measurement, we want to measure $n$ quantum states, in a way that "damages the ... more >>>

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