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Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity

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All reports by Author Ryan Williams:

TR17-188 | 22nd December 2017
Cody Murray, Ryan Williams

Circuit Lower Bounds for Nondeterministic Quasi-Polytime: An Easy Witness Lemma for NP and NQP

We prove that if every problem in $NP$ has $n^k$-size circuits for a fixed constant $k$, then for every $NP$-verifier and every yes-instance $x$ of length $n$ for that verifier, the verifier's search space has an $n^{O(k^3)}$-size witness circuit: a witness for $x$ that can be encoded with a circuit ... more >>>

TR16-002 | 18th January 2016
Ryan Williams

Strong ETH Breaks With Merlin and Arthur: Short Non-Interactive Proofs of Batch Evaluation

We present an efficient proof system for Multipoint Arithmetic Circuit Evaluation: for every arithmetic circuit $C(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ of size $s$ and degree $d$ over a field ${\mathbb F}$, and any inputs $a_1,\ldots,a_K \in {\mathbb F}^n$,
$\bullet$ the Prover sends the Verifier the values $C(a_1), \ldots, C(a_K) \in {\mathbb F}$ and ... more >>>

TR15-188 | 24th November 2015
Daniel Kane, Ryan Williams

Super-Linear Gate and Super-Quadratic Wire Lower Bounds for Depth-Two and Depth-Three Threshold Circuits

In order to formally understand the power of neural computing, we first need to crack the frontier of threshold circuits with two and three layers, a regime that has been surprisingly intractable to analyze. We prove the first super-linear gate lower bounds and the first super-quadratic wire lower bounds for ... more >>>

TR14-164 | 30th November 2014
Cody Murray, Ryan Williams

On the (Non) NP-Hardness of Computing Circuit Complexity

The Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) is: given the truth table of a Boolean function $f$ and a size parameter $k$, is the circuit complexity of $f$ at most $k$? This is the definitive problem of circuit synthesis, and it has been studied since the 1950s. Unlike many problems of ... more >>>

TR13-108 | 9th August 2013
Rahul Santhanam, Ryan Williams

New Algorithms for QBF Satisfiability and Implications for Circuit Complexity

Revisions: 1

We revisit the complexity of the satisfiability problem for quantified Boolean formulas. We show that satisfiability
of quantified CNFs of size $\poly(n)$ on $n$ variables with $O(1)$
quantifier blocks can be solved in time $2^{n-n^{\Omega(1)}}$ by zero-error
randomized algorithms. This is the first known improvement over brute force search in ... more >>>

TR12-107 | 30th August 2012
Brendan Juba, Ryan Williams

Massive Online Teaching to Bounded Learners

We consider a model of teaching in which the learners are consistent and have bounded state, but are otherwise arbitrary. The teacher is non-interactive and ``massively open'': the teacher broadcasts a sequence of examples of an arbitrary target concept, intended for every possible on-line learning algorithm to learn from. We ... more >>>

TR12-059 | 14th May 2012
Rahul Santhanam, Ryan Williams

Uniform Circuits, Lower Bounds, and QBF Algorithms

We explore the relationships between circuit complexity, the complexity of generating circuits, and circuit-analysis algorithms. Our results can be roughly divided into three parts:

1. Lower Bounds Against Medium-Uniform Circuits. Informally, a circuit class is ``medium uniform'' if it can be generated by an algorithmic process that is somewhat complex ... more >>>

TR11-031 | 8th March 2011
Sam Buss, Ryan Williams

Limits on Alternation-Trading Proofs for Time-Space Lower Bounds

This paper characterizes alternation trading based proofs that satisfiability is not in the time and space bounded class $\DTISP(n^c, n^\epsilon)$, for various values $c<2$ and $\epsilon<1$. We characterize exactly what can be proved in the $\epsilon=0$ case with currently known methods, and prove the conjecture of Williams that $c=2\cos(\pi/7)$ is ... more >>>

TR08-076 | 17th June 2008
Ryan Williams

Non-Linear Time Lower Bound for (Succinct) Quantified Boolean Formulas

We prove a model-independent non-linear time lower bound for a slight generalization of the quantified Boolean formula problem (QBF). In particular, we give a reduction from arbitrary languages in alternating time t(n) to QBFs describable in O(t(n)) bits by a reasonable (polynomially) succinct encoding. The reduction works for many reasonable ... more >>>

TR07-036 | 6th April 2007
Ryan Williams

Time-Space Tradeoffs for Counting NP Solutions Modulo Integers

We prove the first time-space tradeoffs for counting the number of solutions to an NP problem modulo small integers, and also improve upon the known time-space tradeoffs for Sat. Let m be a positive integer, and define MODm-Sat to be the problem of determining if a given Boolean formula has ... more >>>

TR04-032 | 5th February 2004
Ryan Williams

A new algorithm for optimal constraint satisfaction and its implications

We present a novel method for exactly solving (in fact, counting solutions to) general constraint satisfaction optimization with at most two variables per constraint (e.g. MAX-2-CSP and MIN-2-CSP), which gives the first exponential improvement over the trivial algorithm; more precisely, it is a constant factor improvement in the base of ... more >>>

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