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Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity

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All reports by Author Igor Carboni Oliveira:

TR18-159 | 11th September 2018
Igor Carboni Oliveira, Rahul Santhanam, Roei Tell

Expander-Based Cryptography Meets Natural Proofs

Revisions: 1

We introduce new forms of attack on expander-based cryptography, and in particular on Goldreich's pseudorandom generator and one-way function. Our attacks exploit low circuit complexity of the underlying expander's neighbor function and/or of the local predicate. Our two key conceptual contributions are:

* The security of Goldreich's PRG and OWF ... more >>>

TR18-158 | 11th September 2018
Igor Carboni Oliveira, Ján Pich, Rahul Santhanam

Hardness magnification near state-of-the-art lower bounds

Revisions: 1

This work continues the development of hardness magnification. The latter proposes a strategy for showing strong complexity lower bounds by reducing them to a refined analysis of weaker models, where combinatorial techniques might be successful.

We consider gap versions of the meta-computational problems MKtP and MCSP, where one needs ... more >>>

TR18-139 | 10th August 2018
Igor Carboni Oliveira, Rahul Santhanam

Hardness Magnification for Natural Problems

We show that for several natural problems of interest, complexity lower bounds that are barely non-trivial imply super-polynomial or even exponential lower bounds in strong computational models. We term this phenomenon "hardness magnification". Our examples of hardness magnification include:

1. Let MCSP$[s]$ be the decision problem whose YES instances are ... more >>>

TR18-122 | 3rd July 2018
Igor Carboni Oliveira, Rahul Santhanam

Pseudo-derandomizing learning and approximation

We continue the study of pseudo-deterministic algorithms initiated by Gat and Goldwasser
[GG11]. A pseudo-deterministic algorithm is a probabilistic algorithm which produces a fixed
output with high probability. We explore pseudo-determinism in the settings of learning and ap-
proximation. Our goal is to simulate known randomized algorithms in these settings ... more >>>

TR18-030 | 9th February 2018
Shuichi Hirahara, Igor Carboni Oliveira, Rahul Santhanam

NP-hardness of Minimum Circuit Size Problem for OR-AND-MOD Circuits

The Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) asks for the size of the smallest boolean circuit that computes a given truth table. It is a prominent problem in NP that is believed to be hard, but for which no proof of NP-hardness has been found. A significant number of works have ... more >>>

TR17-173 | 6th November 2017
Igor Carboni Oliveira, Ruiwen Chen, Rahul Santhanam

An Average-Case Lower Bound against ACC^0

In a seminal work, Williams [Wil14] showed that NEXP (non-deterministic exponential time) does not have polynomial-size ACC^0 circuits. Williams' technique inherently gives a worst-case lower bound, and until now, no average-case version of his result was known.

We show that there is a language L in NEXP (resp. EXP^NP) ... more >>>

TR16-197 | 7th December 2016
Igor Carboni Oliveira, Rahul Santhanam

Conspiracies between Learning Algorithms, Circuit Lower Bounds and Pseudorandomness

We prove several results giving new and stronger connections between learning theory, circuit complexity and pseudorandomness. Let C be any typical class of Boolean circuits, and C[s(n)] denote n-variable C-circuits of size at most s(n). We show:

Learning Speedups: If C[$n^{O(1)}$] admits a randomized weak learning algorithm under the uniform ... more >>>

TR16-196 | 5th December 2016
Igor Carboni Oliveira, Rahul Santhanam

Pseudodeterministic Constructions in Subexponential Time

We study {\it pseudodeterministic constructions}, i.e., randomized algorithms which output the {\it same solution} on most computation paths. We establish unconditionally that there is an infinite sequence $\{p_n\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ of increasing primes and a randomized algorithm $A$ running in expected sub-exponential time such that for each $n$, on input ... more >>>

TR16-071 | 1st May 2016
Jan Krajicek, Igor Carboni Oliveira

Unprovability of circuit upper bounds in Cook's theory PV

We establish unconditionally that for every integer $k \geq 1$ there is a language $L \in P$ such that it is consistent with Cook's theory PV that $L \notin SIZE(n^k)$. Our argument is non-constructive and does not provide an explicit description of this language.

more >>>

TR15-123 | 31st July 2015
Xi Chen, Igor Carboni Oliveira, Rocco Servedio

Addition is exponentially harder than counting for shallow monotone circuits

Let $U_{k,N}$ denote the Boolean function which takes as input $k$ strings of $N$ bits each, representing $k$ numbers $a^{(1)},\dots,a^{(k)}$ in $\{0,1,\dots,2^{N}-1\}$, and outputs 1 if and only if $a^{(1)} + \cdots + a^{(k)} \geq 2^N.$ Let THR$_{t,n}$ denote a monotone unweighted threshold gate, i.e., the Boolean function which takes ... more >>>

TR15-008 | 14th January 2015
Igor Carboni Oliveira, Siyao Guo, Tal Malkin, Alon Rosen

The Power of Negations in Cryptography

Revisions: 1

The study of monotonicity and negation complexity for Boolean functions has been prevalent in complexity theory as well as in computational learning theory, but little attention has been given to it in the cryptographic context. Recently, Goldreich and Izsak (2012) have initiated a study of whether cryptographic primitives can be ... more >>>

TR14-173 | 13th December 2014
Igor Carboni Oliveira, Rahul Santhanam

Majority is incompressible by AC$^0[p]$ circuits

Revisions: 1

We consider $\cal C$-compression games, a hybrid model between computational and communication complexity. A $\cal C$-compression game for a function $f \colon \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}$ is a two-party communication game, where the first party Alice knows the entire input $x$ but is restricted to use strategies computed by $\cal C$-circuits, ... more >>>

TR14-144 | 30th October 2014
Eric Blais, Clement Canonne, Igor Carboni Oliveira, Rocco Servedio, Li-Yang Tan

Learning circuits with few negations

Monotone Boolean functions, and the monotone Boolean circuits that compute them, have been intensively studied in complexity theory. In this paper we study the structure of Boolean functions in terms of the minimum number of negations in any circuit computing them, a complexity measure that interpolates between monotone functions and ... more >>>

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