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Reports tagged with arithmetic circuits:
TR98-019 | 5th April 1998
Eric Allender, Klaus Reinhardt

Isolation, Matching, and Counting

We show that the perfect matching problem is in the
complexity class SPL (in the nonuniform setting).
This provides a better upper bound on the complexity of the
matching problem, as well as providing motivation for studying
the complexity class SPL.

Using similar ... more >>>

TR98-020 | 10th April 1998
Andris Ambainis, David Mix Barrington, Huong LeThanh

On Counting $AC^0$ Circuits with Negative Constants

Continuing the study of the relationship between $TC^0$,
$AC^0$ and arithmetic circuits, started by Agrawal et al.
(IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity'97),
we answer a few questions left open in this
paper. Our main result is that the classes Diff$AC^0$ and
Gap$AC^0$ ... more >>>

TR98-023 | 16th April 1998
Eric Allender, Shiyu Zhou

Uniform Inclusions in Nondeterministic Logspace

We show that the complexity class LogFew is contained
in NL $\cap$ SPL. Previously, this was known only to
hold in the nonuniform setting.

more >>>

TR99-012 | 19th April 1999
Eric Allender, Andris Ambainis, David Mix Barrington, Samir Datta, Huong LeThanh

Bounded Depth Arithmetic Circuits: Counting and Closure

Comments: 1

Constant-depth arithmetic circuits have been defined and studied
in [AAD97,ABL98]; these circuits yield the function classes #AC^0
and GapAC^0. These function classes in turn provide new
characterizations of the computational power of threshold circuits,
and provide a link between the circuit classes AC^0 ... more >>>

TR01-041 | 23rd May 2001
Eric Allender, Michal Koucky, Detlef Ronneburger, Sambuddha Roy, V. Vinay

Time-Space Tradeoffs in the Counting Hierarchy

We extend the lower bound techniques of [Fortnow], to the
unbounded-error probabilistic model. A key step in the argument
is a generalization of Nepomnjascii's theorem from the Boolean
setting to the arithmetic setting. This generalization is made
possible, due to the recent discovery of logspace-uniform TC^0
more >>>

TR02-012 | 3rd February 2002
Ran Raz

On the Complexity of Matrix Product

We prove a lower bound of $\Omega(m^2 \log m)$ for the size of
any arithmetic circuit for the product of two matrices,
over the real or complex numbers, as long as the circuit doesn't
use products with field elements of absolute value larger than 1
(where $m \times m$ is ... more >>>

TR02-052 | 3rd September 2002
Vince Grolmusz

Computing Elementary Symmetric Polynomials with a Sub-Polynomial Number of Multiplications

Revisions: 1

Elementary symmetric polynomials $S_n^k$ are used as a
benchmark for the bounded-depth arithmetic circuit model of computation.
In this work we prove that $S_n^k$ modulo composite numbers $m=p_1p_2$
can be computed with much fewer multiplications than over any field, if
the coefficients of monomials $x_{i_1}x_{i_2}\cdots x_{i_k}$ ... more >>>

TR03-018 | 28th March 2003
Matthias Galota, Heribert Vollmer

Functions Computable in Polynomial Space

We show that the class of integer-valued functions computable by
polynomial-space Turing machines is exactly the class of functions f
for which there is a nondeterministic polynomial-time Turing
machine with a certain order on its paths that on input x outputs a 3x3
matrix with entries from {-1,0,1} on each ... more >>>

TR05-037 | 8th April 2005
Eric Allender, Peter Bürgisser, Johan Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Peter Bro Miltersen

On the Complexity of Numerical Analysis

Revisions: 1 , Comments: 1

We study two quite different approaches to understanding the complexity
of fundamental problems in numerical analysis. We show that both hinge
on the question of understanding the complexity of the following problem,
which we call PosSLP:
Given a division-free straight-line program
producing an integer N, decide whether N>0.
more >>>

TR06-060 | 4th May 2006
Ran Raz, Amir Shpilka, Amir Yehudayoff

A Lower Bound for the Size of Syntactically Multilinear Arithmetic Circuits

We construct an explicit polynomial $f(x_1,...,x_n)$, with
coefficients in ${0,1}$, such that the size of any syntactically
multilinear arithmetic circuit computing $f$ is at least
$\Omega( n^{4/3} / log^2(n) )$. The lower bound holds over any field.

more >>>

TR07-005 | 17th January 2007
Rahul Santhanam

Circuit Lower Bounds for Merlin-Arthur Classes

We show that for each k > 0, MA/1 (MA with 1 bit of advice) does not have circuits of size n^k. This implies the first superlinear circuit lower bounds for the promise versions of the classes MA, AM and ZPP_{||}^{NP}.

We extend our main result in several ways. For ... more >>>

TR07-087 | 11th July 2007
Nutan Limaye, Meena Mahajan, B. V. Raghavendra Rao

Arithmetizing classes around NC^1 and L

The parallel complexity class NC^1 has many equivalent models such as
polynomial size formulae and bounded width branching
programs. Caussinus et al. \cite{CMTV} considered arithmetizations of
two of these classes, #NC^1 and #BWBP. We further this study to
include arithmetization of other classes. In particular, we show that
counting paths ... more >>>

TR07-121 | 21st November 2007
Zeev Dvir, Amir Shpilka, Amir Yehudayoff

Hardness-Randomness Tradeoffs for Bounded Depth Arithmetic Circuits

In this paper we show that lower bounds for bounded depth arithmetic circuits imply derandomization of polynomial identity testing for bounded depth arithmetic circuits. More formally, if there exists an explicit polynomial f(x_1,...,x_m) that cannot be computed by a depth d arithmetic circuit of small size then there exists ... more >>>

TR08-001 | 5th January 2008
Ran Raz

Elusive Functions and Lower Bounds for Arithmetic Circuits

A basic fact in linear algebra is that the image of the curve
$f(x)=(x^1,x^2,x^3,...,x^m)$, say over $C$, is not contained in any
$m-1$ dimensional affine subspace of $C^m$. In other words, the image
of $f$ is not contained in the image of any polynomial-mapping
$G:C^{m-1} ---> C^m$ ... more >>>

TR08-006 | 18th January 2008
Ran Raz, Amir Yehudayoff

Lower Bounds and Separations for Constant Depth Multilinear Circuits

We prove an exponential lower bound for the size of constant depth multilinear arithmetic circuits computing either the determinant or the permanent (a circuit is called multilinear, if the polynomial computed by each of its gates is multilinear). We also prove a super-polynomial separation between the size of product-depth $d$ ... more >>>

TR08-025 | 3rd January 2008
Vikraman Arvind, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Srikanth Srinivasan

New results on Noncommutative and Commutative Polynomial Identity Testing

Revisions: 2

Using ideas from automata theory we design a new efficient
(deterministic) identity test for the \emph{noncommutative}
polynomial identity testing problem (first introduced and studied by
Raz-Shpilka in 2005 and Bogdanov-Wee in 2005). More precisely,
given as input a noncommutative
circuit $C(x_1,\cdots,x_n)$ computing a ... more >>>

TR08-048 | 8th April 2008
Meena Mahajan, B. V. Raghavendra Rao

Arithmetic circuits, syntactic multilinearity, and the limitations of skew formulae

Functions in arithmetic NC1 are known to have equivalent constant
width polynomial degree circuits, but the converse containment is
unknown. In a partial answer to this question, we show that syntactic
multilinear circuits of constant width and polynomial degree can be
depth-reduced, though the resulting circuits need not be ... more >>>

TR08-062 | 11th June 2008
Manindra Agrawal, V. Vinay

Arithmetic Circuits: A Chasm at Depth Four

We show that proving exponential lower bounds on depth four arithmetic
circuits imply exponential lower bounds for unrestricted depth arithmetic
circuits. In other words, for exponential sized circuits additional depth
beyond four does not help.

We then show that a complete black-box derandomization of Identity Testing problem for depth four ... more >>>

TR09-032 | 16th April 2009
Neeraj Kayal, Shubhangi Saraf

Blackbox Polynomial Identity Testing for Depth 3 Circuits

We study depth three arithmetic circuits with bounded top fanin. We give the first deterministic polynomial time blackbox identity test for depth three circuits with bounded top fanin over the field of rational numbers, thus resolving a question posed by Klivans and Spielman (STOC 2001).

Our main technical result is ... more >>>

TR09-116 | 15th November 2009
Zohar Karnin, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Amir Shpilka, Ilya Volkovich

Deterministic identity testing of depth 4 multilinear circuits with bounded top fan-in

We give the first sub-exponential time deterministic polynomial
identity testing algorithm for depth-$4$ multilinear circuits with
a small top fan-in. More accurately, our algorithm works for
depth-$4$ circuits with a plus gate at the top (also known as
$\Spsp$ circuits) and has a running time of
$\exp(\poly(\log(n),\log(s),k))$ where $n$ is ... more >>>

TR09-134 | 10th December 2009
Zeev Dvir

On matrix rigidity and locally self-correctable codes

Revisions: 1

We describe a new approach for the problem of finding {\rm rigid} matrices, as posed by Valiant [Val77], by connecting it to the, seemingly unrelated, problem of proving lower bounds for locally self-correctable codes. This approach, if successful, could lead to a non-natural property (in the sense of Razborov and ... more >>>

TR10-103 | 28th June 2010
Andreas Krebs, Nutan Limaye, Meena Mahajan

Counting paths in VPA is complete for \#NC$^1$

We give a \#NC$^1$ upper bound for the problem of counting accepting paths in any fixed visibly pushdown automaton. Our algorithm involves a non-trivial adaptation of the arithmetic formula evaluation algorithm of Buss, Cook, Gupta, Ramachandran (BCGR: SICOMP 21(4), 1992). We also show that the problem is \#NC$^1$ hard. Our ... more >>>

TR10-105 | 29th June 2010
Scott Aaronson, Dieter van Melkebeek

A note on circuit lower bounds from derandomization

We present an alternate proof of the result by Kabanets and Impagliazzo that derandomizing polynomial identity testing implies circuit lower bounds. Our proof is simpler, scales better, and yields a somewhat stronger result than the original argument.

more >>>

TR10-118 | 27th July 2010
Maurice Jansen

Extracting Roots of Arithmetic Circuits by Adapting Numerical Methods

Revisions: 2

For two polynomials $f \in \mathbb{F}[x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n, y]$ and $p \in \mathbb{F}[x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n]$, we say that $p$ is a root of $f$, if $f(x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n, p) \equiv 0$. We study the relation between the arithmetic circuit sizes of $f$ and $p$ for general circuits ... more >>>

TR10-188 | 8th December 2010
Matthew Anderson, Dieter van Melkebeek, Ilya Volkovich

Derandomizing Polynomial Identity Testing for Multilinear Constant-Read Formulae

Revisions: 1

We present a polynomial-time deterministic algorithm for testing whether constant-read multilinear arithmetic formulae are identically zero. In such a formula each variable occurs only a constant number of times and each subformula computes a multilinear polynomial. Our algorithm runs in time $s^{O(1)}\cdot n^{k^{O(k)}}$, where $s$ denotes the size of the ... more >>>

TR10-189 | 8th December 2010
Neeraj Kayal, Chandan Saha

On the Sum of Square Roots of Polynomials and related problems

The sum of square roots problem over integers is the task of deciding the sign of a nonzero sum, $S = \Sigma_{i=1}^{n}{\delta_i}$ . \sqrt{$a_i$}, where $\delta_i \in$ { +1, -1} and $a_i$'s are positive integers that are upper bounded by $N$ (say). A fundamental open question in numerical analysis and ... more >>>

TR11-021 | 13th February 2011
Chandan Saha, Ramprasad Saptharishi, Nitin Saxena

A Case of Depth-3 Identity Testing, Sparse Factorization and Duality

Finding an efficient solution to the general problem of polynomial identity testing (PIT) is a challenging task. In this work, we study the complexity of two special but natural cases of identity testing - first is a case of depth-$3$ PIT, the other of depth-$4$ PIT.

Our first problem is ... more >>>

TR11-022 | 14th February 2011
Malte Beecken, Johannes Mittmann, Nitin Saxena

Algebraic Independence and Blackbox Identity Testing

Algebraic independence is an advanced notion in commutative algebra that generalizes independence of linear polynomials to higher degree. Polynomials $\{f_1,\ldots, f_m\} \subset \mathbb{F}[x_1,\ldots, x_n]$ are called algebraically independent if there is no non-zero polynomial $F$ such that $F(f_1, \ldots, f_m) = 0$. The transcendence degree, $\mbox{trdeg}\{f_1,\ldots, f_m\}$, is the maximal ... more >>>

TR11-046 | 2nd April 2011
Shubhangi Saraf, Ilya Volkovich

Black-Box Identity Testing of Depth-4 Multilinear Circuits

We study the problem of identity testing for multilinear $\Spsp(k)$ circuits, i.e. multilinear depth-$4$ circuits with fan-in $k$ at the top $+$ gate. We give the first polynomial-time deterministic
identity testing algorithm for such circuits. Our results also hold in the black-box setting.

The running time of our algorithm is ... more >>>

TR11-138 | 24th October 2011
Guy Moshkovitz

Complexity Lower Bounds through Balanced Graph Properties

In this paper we present a combinatorial approach for proving complexity lower bounds. We mainly focus on the following instantiation of it. Consider a pair of properties of $m$-edge regular hypergraphs. Suppose they are ``indistinguishable'' with respect to hypergraphs with $m-t$ edges, in the sense that every such hypergraph has ... more >>>

TR13-026 | 11th February 2013
Ankit Gupta, Pritish Kamath, Neeraj Kayal, Ramprasad Saptharishi

Arithmetic circuits: A chasm at depth three

Revisions: 1

We show that, over $\mathbb{C}$, if an $n$-variate polynomial of degree $d = n^{O(1)}$ is computable by an arithmetic circuit of size $s$ (respectively by an algebraic branching program of size $s$) then it can also be computed by a depth three circuit (i.e. a $\Sigma \Pi \Sigma$-circuit) of size ... more >>>

TR13-043 | 25th March 2013
Oded Goldreich, Avi Wigderson

On the Size of Depth-Three Boolean Circuits for Computing Multilinear Functions

Revisions: 1

We propose that multi-linear functions of relatively low degree
over GF(2) may be good candidates for obtaining exponential
lower bounds on the size of constant-depth Boolean circuits
(computing explicit functions).
Specifically, we propose to move gradually from linear functions
to multilinear ones, and conjecture that, for any $t\geq2$,
more >>>

TR13-068 | 3rd May 2013
Mrinal Kumar, Shubhangi Saraf

Lower Bounds for Depth 4 Homogenous Circuits with Bounded Top Fanin

We study the class of homogenous $\Sigma\Pi\Sigma\Pi(r)$ circuits, which are depth 4 homogenous circuits with top fanin bounded by $r$. We show that any homogenous $\Sigma\Pi\Sigma\Pi(r)$ circuit computing the permanent of an $n\times n$ matrix must have size at least $\exp\left(n^{\Omega(1/r)}\right)$.

In a recent result, Gupta, Kamath, Kayal and ... more >>>

TR13-153 | 8th November 2013
Mrinal Kumar, Shubhangi Saraf

The Limits of Depth Reduction for Arithmetic Formulas: It's all about the top fan-in

In recent years, a very exciting and promising method for proving lower bounds for arithmetic circuits has been proposed. This method combines the method of {\it depth reduction} developed in the works of Agrawal-Vinay [AV08], Koiran [Koi12] and Tavenas [Tav13], and the use of the shifted partial derivative complexity measure ... more >>>

TR14-001 | 4th January 2014
Swastik Kopparty, Shubhangi Saraf, Amir Shpilka

Equivalence of Polynomial Identity Testing and Deterministic Multivariate Polynomial Factorization

In this paper we show that the problem of deterministically factoring multivariate polynomials reduces to the problem of deterministic polynomial identity testing. Specifically, we show that given an arithmetic circuit (either explicitly or via black-box access) that computes a polynomial $f(X_1,\ldots,X_n)$, the task of computing arithmetic circuits for the factors ... more >>>

TR14-003 | 10th January 2014
Zeev Dvir, Rafael Mendes de Oliveira, Amir Shpilka

Testing Equivalence of Polynomials under Shifts

Revisions: 2 , Comments: 1

Two polynomials $f, g \in F[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ are called shift-equivalent if there exists a vector $(a_1, \ldots, a_n) \in {F}^n$ such that the polynomial identity $f(x_1+a_1, \ldots, x_n+a_n) \equiv g(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ holds. Our main result is a new randomized algorithm that tests whether two given polynomials are shift equivalent. Our ... more >>>

TR14-089 | 16th July 2014
Neeraj Kayal, Chandan Saha

Lower Bounds for Depth Three Arithmetic Circuits with small bottom fanin

Revisions: 1

Shpilka and Wigderson (CCC 1999) had posed the problem of proving exponential lower bounds for (nonhomogeneous) depth three arithmetic circuits with bounded bottom fanin over a field $\mathbb{F}$ of characteristic zero. We resolve this problem by proving a $N^{\Omega(\frac{d}{\tau})}$ lower bound for (nonhomogeneous) depth three arithmetic circuits with bottom fanin ... more >>>

TR14-122 | 30th September 2014
Eric Allender, Anna Gal, Ian Mertz

Dual VP Classes

Revisions: 2

We consider arithmetic complexity classes that are in some sense dual to the classes VP(Fp) that were introduced by Valiant. This provides new characterizations of the complexity classes ACC^1 and TC^1, and also provides a compelling example of
a class of high-degree polynomials that can be simulated via arithmetic circuits ... more >>>

TR14-130 | 17th October 2014
Ankit Gupta

Algebraic Geometric Techniques for Depth-4 PIT & Sylvester-Gallai Conjectures for Varieties

Revisions: 1

We present an algebraic-geometric approach for devising a deterministic polynomial time blackbox identity testing (PIT) algorithm for depth-4 circuits with bounded top fanin. Using our approach, we devise such an algorithm for the case when such circuits have bounded bottom fanin and satisfy a certain non-degeneracy condition. In particular, we ... more >>>

TR14-157 | 27th November 2014
Rafael Mendes de Oliveira, Amir Shpilka, Ben Lee Volk

Subexponential Size Hitting Sets for Bounded Depth Multilinear Formulas

In this paper we give subexponential size hitting sets for bounded depth multilinear arithmetic formulas. Using the known relation between black-box PIT and lower bounds we obtain lower bounds for these models.

For depth-3 multilinear formulas, of size $\exp(n^\delta)$, we give a hitting set of size $\exp(\tilde{O}(n^{2/3 + 2\delta/3}))$. ... more >>>

TR15-015 | 30th January 2015
Neeraj Kayal, Chandan Saha

Multi-$k$-ic depth three circuit lower bound

In a multi-$k$-ic depth three circuit every variable appears in at most $k$ of the linear polynomials in every product gate of the circuit. This model is a natural generalization of multilinear depth three circuits that allows the formal degree of the circuit to exceed the number of underlying variables ... more >>>

TR15-042 | 30th March 2015
Ilya Volkovich

Computations beyond Exponentiation Gates and Applications

In Arithmetic Circuit Complexity the standard operations are $\{+,\times\}$.
Yet, in some scenarios exponentiation gates are considered as well (see e.g. \cite{BshoutyBshouty98,ASSS12,Kayal12,KSS14}).
In this paper we study the question of efficiently evaluating a polynomial given an oracle access to its power.
That is, beyond an exponentiation gate. As ... more >>>

TR15-061 | 14th April 2015
Benny Applebaum, Jonathan Avron, Christina Brzuska

Arithmetic Cryptography

Revisions: 1

We study the possibility of computing cryptographic primitives in a fully-black-box arithmetic model over a finite field F. In this model, the input to a cryptographic primitive (e.g., encryption scheme) is given as a sequence of field elements, the honest parties are implemented by arithmetic circuits which make only a ... more >>>

TR15-071 | 23rd April 2015
Mrinal Kumar, Shubhangi Saraf

Sums of products of polynomials in few variables : lower bounds and polynomial identity testing

We study the complexity of representing polynomials as a sum of products of polynomials in few variables. More precisely, we study representations of the form $$P = \sum_{i = 1}^T \prod_{j = 1}^d Q_{ij}$$
such that each $Q_{ij}$ is an arbitrary polynomial that depends on at most $s$ variables.

... more >>>

TR15-109 | 1st July 2015
Mrinal Kumar, Ramprasad Saptharishi

An exponential lower bound for homogeneous depth-5 circuits over finite fields

In this paper, we show exponential lower bounds for the class of homogeneous depth-$5$ circuits over all small finite fields. More formally, we show that there is an explicit family $\{P_d : d \in N\}$ of polynomials in $VNP$, where $P_d$ is of degree $d$ in $n = d^{O(1)}$ variables, ... more >>>

TR15-115 | 20th July 2015
Ilya Volkovich

A Guide to Learning Arithmetic Circuits

An \emph{arithmetic circuit} is a directed acyclic graph in which the operations are $\{+,\times\}$.
In this paper, we exhibit several connections between learning algorithms for arithmetic circuits and other problems.
In particular, we show that:

\item Efficient learning algorithms for arithmetic circuit classes imply explicit exponential lower bounds.

... more >>>

TR15-134 | 19th August 2015
Fu Li, Iddo Tzameret, Zhengyu Wang

Characterizing Propositional Proofs as Non-Commutative Formulas

Does every Boolean tautology have a short propositional-calculus proof? Here, a propositional-calculus (i.e., Frege) proof is any proof starting from a set of axioms and deriving new Boolean formulas using a fixed set of sound derivation rules. Establishing any super-polynomial size lower bound on Frege proofs (in terms of the ... more >>>

TR15-145 | 5th September 2015
Eric Allender, Asa Goodwillie

Arithmetic circuit classes over Zm

We continue the study of the complexity classes VP(Zm) and LambdaP(Zm) which was initiated in [AGM15]. We distinguish between “strict” and “lax” versions of these classes and prove some new equalities and inclusions between these arithmetic circuit classes and various subclasses of ACC^1.

more >>>

TR15-154 | 22nd September 2015
Neeraj Kayal, Vineet Nair, Chandan Saha

Separation between Read-once Oblivious Algebraic Branching Programs (ROABPs) and Multilinear Depth Three Circuits

We show an exponential separation between two well-studied models of algebraic computation, namely read-once oblivious algebraic branching programs (ROABPs) and multilinear depth three circuits. In particular we show the following:

1. There exists an explicit $n$-variate polynomial computable by linear sized multilinear depth three circuits (with only two product gates) ... more >>>

TR15-181 | 13th November 2015
Neeraj Kayal, Chandan Saha, Sébastien Tavenas

On the size of homogeneous and of depth four formulas with low individual degree

Let $r \geq 1$ be an integer. Let us call a polynomial $f(x_1, x_2,\ldots, x_N) \in \mathbb{F}[\mathbf{x}]$ as a multi-$r$-ic polynomial if the degree of $f$ with respect to any variable is at most $r$ (this generalizes the notion of multilinear polynomials). We investigate arithmetic circuits in which the output ... more >>>

TR15-194 | 30th November 2015
Mrinal Kumar, Shubhangi Saraf

Arithmetic circuits with locally low algebraic rank

Revisions: 1

In recent years there has been a flurry of activity proving lower bounds for
homogeneous depth-4 arithmetic circuits [GKKS13, FLMS14, KLSS14, KS14c], which has brought us very close to statements that are known to imply VP $\neq$ VNP. It is a big question to go beyond homogeneity, and in ... more >>>

TR15-201 | 10th December 2015
C Ramya, Raghavendra Rao B V

Limitations of sum of products of Read-Once Polynomials

Revisions: 1

We study limitations of polynomials computed by depth two circuits built over read-once polynomials (ROPs) and depth three syntactically multi-linear formulas.
We prove an exponential lower bound for the size of the $\Sigma\Pi^{[N^{1/30}]}$ arithmetic circuits built over syntactically multi-linear $\Sigma\Pi\Sigma^{[N^{8/15}]}$ arithmetic circuits computing a product of variable ... more >>>

TR15-202 | 11th December 2015
Meena Mahajan, Raghavendra Rao B V, Karteek Sreenivasaiah

Building above read-once polynomials: identity testing and hardness of representation

Polynomial Identity Testing (PIT) algorithms have focused on
polynomials computed either by small alternation-depth arithmetic circuits, or by read-restricted
formulas. Read-once polynomials (ROPs) are computed by read-once
formulas (ROFs) and are the simplest of read-restricted polynomials.
Building structures above these, we show the following:
\item A deterministic polynomial-time non-black-box ... more >>>

TR16-006 | 22nd January 2016
Neeraj Kayal, Chandan Saha, Sébastien Tavenas

An almost Cubic Lower Bound for Depth Three Arithmetic Circuits

Revisions: 2

We show an $\Omega \left(\frac{n^3}{(\ln n)^2}\right)$ lower bound on the size of any depth three ($\SPS$) arithmetic circuit computing an explicit multilinear polynomial in $n$ variables over any field. This improves upon the previously known quadratic lower bound by Shpilka and Wigderson.

more >>>

TR16-045 | 22nd March 2016
Michael Forbes, Mrinal Kumar, Ramprasad Saptharishi

Functional lower bounds for arithmetic circuits and connections to boolean circuit complexity

We say that a circuit $C$ over a field $F$ functionally computes an $n$-variate polynomial $P \in F[x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n]$ if for every $x \in \{0,1\}^n$ we have that $C(x) = P(x)$. This is in contrast to {syntactically} computing $P$, when $C \equiv P$ as formal polynomials. In this ... more >>>

TR16-096 | 14th June 2016
Suryajith Chillara, Mrinal Kumar, Ramprasad Saptharishi, V Vinay

The Chasm at Depth Four, and Tensor Rank : Old results, new insights

Revisions: 2

Agrawal and Vinay [AV08] showed how any polynomial size arithmetic circuit can be thought of as a depth four arithmetic circuit of subexponential size. The resulting circuit size in this simulation was more carefully analyzed by Korian [Koiran] and subsequently by Tavenas [Tav13]. We provide a simple proof of this ... more >>>

TR16-143 | 15th September 2016
Nikhil Balaji, Nutan Limaye, Srikanth Srinivasan

An Almost Cubic Lower Bound for $\Sigma\Pi\Sigma$ Circuits Computing a Polynomial in VP

In this note, we prove that there is an explicit polynomial in VP such that any $\Sigma\Pi\Sigma$ arithmetic circuit computing it must have size at least $n^{3-o(1)}$. Up to $n^{o(1)}$ factors, this strengthens a recent result of Kayal, Saha and Tavenas (ICALP 2016) which gives a polynomial in VNP with ... more >>>

TR17-086 | 9th May 2017
C Ramya, Raghavendra Rao B V

Linear Projections of the Vandermonde Polynomial

Revisions: 1

An n-variate Vandermonde polynomial is the determinant of the n × n matrix where the ith column is the vector (1, x_i , x_i^2 , . . . , x_i^{n-1})^T. Vandermonde polynomials play a crucial role in the in the theory of alternating polynomials and occur in Lagrangian polynomial interpolation ... more >>>

TR17-124 | 6th August 2017
Mrinal Kumar, Ben Lee Volk

An Almost Quadratic Lower Bound for Syntactically Multilinear Arithmetic Circuits

Revisions: 1

We prove a lower bound of $\Omega(n^2/\log^2 n)$ on the size of any syntactically multilinear arithmetic circuit computing some explicit multilinear polynomial $f(x_1, \ldots, x_n)$. Our approach expands and improves upon a result of Raz, Shpilka and Yehudayoff [RSY08], who proved a lower bound of $\Omega(n^{4/3}/\log^2 n)$ for the same ... more >>>

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