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Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity

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Reports tagged with arithmetic formulas:
TR03-067 | 14th August 2003
Ran Raz

Multi-Linear Formulas for Permanent and Determinant are of Super-Polynomial Size

An arithmetic formula is multi-linear if the polynomial computed
by each of its sub-formulas is multi-linear. We prove that any
multi-linear arithmetic formula for the permanent or the
determinant of an $n \times n$ matrix is of size super-polynomial
in $n$.

more >>>

TR04-042 | 21st May 2004
Ran Raz

Multilinear-$NC_1$ $\ne$ Multilinear-$NC_2$

An arithmetic circuit or formula is multilinear if the polynomial
computed at each of its wires is multilinear.
We give an explicit example for a polynomial $f(x_1,...,x_n)$,
with coefficients in $\{0,1\}$, such that over any field:
1) $f$ can be computed by a polynomial-size multilinear circuit
of depth $O(\log^2 ... more >>>

TR07-031 | 26th March 2007
Yael Tauman Kalai, Ran Raz

Interactive PCP

An interactive-PCP (say, for the membership $x \in L$) is a
proof that can be verified by reading only one of its bits, with the
help of a very short interactive-proof.
We show that for membership in some languages $L$, there are
interactive-PCPs that are significantly shorter than the known
more >>>

TR12-033 | 5th April 2012
Ankit Gupta, Neeraj Kayal, Youming Qiao

Random Arithmetic Formulas can be Reconstructed Efficiently

Informally stated, we present here a randomized algorithm that given blackbox access to the polynomial $f$ computed by an unknown/hidden arithmetic formula $\phi$ reconstructs, on the average, an equivalent or smaller formula $\hat{\phi}$ in time polynomial in the size of its output $\hat{\phi}$.

Specifically, we consider arithmetic formulas wherein the ... more >>>

TR13-091 | 17th June 2013
Neeraj Kayal, Chandan Saha, Ramprasad Saptharishi

A super-polynomial lower bound for regular arithmetic formulas.

We consider arithmetic formulas consisting of alternating layers of addition $(+)$ and multiplication $(\times)$ gates such that the fanin of all the gates in any fixed layer is the same. Such a formula $\Phi$ which additionally has the property that its formal/syntactic degree is at most twice the (total) degree ... more >>>

TR14-005 | 14th January 2014
Neeraj Kayal, Nutan Limaye, Chandan Saha, Srikanth Srinivasan

An Exponential Lower Bound for Homogeneous Depth Four Arithmetic Formulas

We show here a $2^{\Omega(\sqrt{d} \cdot \log N)}$ size lower bound for homogeneous depth four arithmetic formulas. That is, we give
an explicit family of polynomials of degree $d$ on $N$ variables (with $N = d^3$ in our case) with $0, 1$-coefficients such that
for any representation of ... more >>>

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