Zeev Dvir, Amir Shpilka

In this work we study two seemingly unrelated notions. Locally Decodable Codes(LDCs) are codes that allow the recovery of each message bit from a constant number of entries of the codeword. Polynomial Identity Testing (PIT) is one of the fundamental problems of algebraic complexity: we are given a circuit computing ... more >>>

Zeev Dvir, Amir Shpilka, Amir Yehudayoff

In this paper we show that lower bounds for bounded depth arithmetic circuits imply derandomization of polynomial identity testing for bounded depth arithmetic circuits. More formally, if there exists an explicit polynomial f(x_1,...,x_m) that cannot be computed by a depth d arithmetic circuit of small size then there exists ... more >>>

Vikraman Arvind, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Srikanth Srinivasan

Using ideas from automata theory we design a new efficient

(deterministic) identity test for the \emph{noncommutative}

polynomial identity testing problem (first introduced and studied by

Raz-Shpilka in 2005 and Bogdanov-Wee in 2005). More precisely,

given as input a noncommutative

circuit $C(x_1,\cdots,x_n)$ computing a ...
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Vikraman Arvind, Partha Mukhopadhyay

We give a randomized polynomial-time identity test for

noncommutative circuits of polynomial degree based on the isolation

lemma. Using this result, we show that derandomizing the isolation

lemma implies noncommutative circuit size lower bounds. More

precisely, we consider two restricted versions of the isolation

lemma and show that derandomizing each ...
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Vikraman Arvind, Partha Mukhopadhyay

Motivated by the quantum algorithm in \cite{MN05} for testing

commutativity of black-box groups, we study the following problem:

Given a black-box finite ring $R=\angle{r_1,\cdots,r_k}$ where

$\{r_1,r_2,\cdots,r_k\}$ is an additive generating set for $R$ and a

multilinear polynomial $f(x_1,\cdots,x_m)$ over $R$ also accessed as

a ...
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Neeraj Kayal, Shubhangi Saraf

We study depth three arithmetic circuits with bounded top fanin. We give the first deterministic polynomial time blackbox identity test for depth three circuits with bounded top fanin over the field of rational numbers, thus resolving a question posed by Klivans and Spielman (STOC 2001).

Our main technical result is ... more >>>

Chandan Saha, Ramprasad Saptharishi, Nitin Saxena

We study the problem of polynomial identity testing (PIT) for depth

2 arithmetic circuits over matrix algebra. We show that identity

testing of depth 3 (Sigma-Pi-Sigma) arithmetic circuits over a field

F is polynomial time equivalent to identity testing of depth 2

(Pi-Sigma) arithmetic circuits over U_2(F), the ...
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Matei David, Periklis Papakonstantinou, Anastasios Sidiropoulos

We define a hierarchy of complexity classes that lie between P and RP, yielding a new way of quantifying partial progress towards the derandomization of RP. A standard approach in derandomization is to reduce the number of random bits an algorithm uses. We instead focus on a model of computation ... more >>>

Maurice Jansen, Youming Qiao, Jayalal Sarma

In this paper we study algebraic branching programs (ABPs) with restrictions on the order and the number of reads of variables in the program. Given a permutation $\pi$ of $n$ variables, for a $\pi$-ordered ABP ($\pi$-OABP), for any directed path $p$ from source to sink, a variable can appear at ... more >>>

Amir Shpilka, Ilya Volkovich

We say that a polynomial $f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ is {\em indecomposable} if it cannot be written as a product of two polynomials that are defined over disjoint sets of variables. The {\em polynomial decomposition} problem is defined to be the task of finding the indecomposable factors of a given polynomial. Note that ... more >>>

Maurice Jansen, Youming Qiao, Jayalal Sarma

An algebraic branching program (ABP) is given by a directed acyclic graph with source and sink vertices $s$ and $t$, respectively, and where edges are labeled by variables or field constants. An ABP computes the sum of weights of all directed paths from $s$ to $t$, where the weight of ... more >>>

Scott Aaronson, Dieter van Melkebeek

We present an alternate proof of the result by Kabanets and Impagliazzo that derandomizing polynomial identity testing implies circuit lower bounds. Our proof is simpler, scales better, and yields a somewhat stronger result than the original argument.

more >>>Matthew Anderson, Dieter van Melkebeek, Ilya Volkovich

We present a polynomial-time deterministic algorithm for testing whether constant-read multilinear arithmetic formulae are identically zero. In such a formula each variable occurs only a constant number of times and each subformula computes a multilinear polynomial. Our algorithm runs in time $s^{O(1)}\cdot n^{k^{O(k)}}$, where $s$ denotes the size of the ... more >>>

Maurice Jansen, Rahul Santhanam

We associate to each Boolean language complexity class $\mathcal{C}$ the algebraic class $a\cdot\mathcal{C}$ consisting of families of polynomials $\{f_n\}$ for which the evaluation problem over the integers is in $\mathcal{C}$. We prove the following lower bound and randomness-to-hardness results:

1. If polynomial identity testing (PIT) is in $NSUBEXP$ then $a\cdot ... more >>>

Michael Forbes, Amir Shpilka

We study the problem of obtaining efficient, deterministic, black-box polynomial identity testing algorithms for depth-3 set-multilinear circuits (over arbitrary fields). This class of circuits has an efficient, deterministic, white-box polynomial identity testing algorithm (due to Raz and Shpilka), but has no known such black-box algorithm. We recast this problem as ... more >>>

Manindra Agrawal, Chandan Saha, Nitin Saxena

We call a depth-$4$ formula $C$ $\textit{ set-depth-4}$ if there exists a (unknown) partition $X_1\sqcup\cdots\sqcup X_d$ of the variable indices $[n]$ that the top product layer respects, i.e. $C(\mathbf{x})=\sum_{i=1}^k {\prod_{j=1}^{d} {f_{i,j}(\mathbf{x}_{X_j})}}$ $ ,$ where $f_{i,j}$ is a $\textit{sparse}$ polynomial in $\mathbb{F}[\mathbf{x}_{X_j}]$. Extending this definition to any depth - we call ... more >>>

Michael Forbes, Amir Shpilka

We study the problem of obtaining efficient, deterministic, black-box polynomial identity testing (PIT) algorithms for read-once oblivious algebraic branching programs (ABPs). This class has an efficient, deterministic, white-box polynomial identity testing algorithm (due to Raz and Shpilka), but prior to this work had no known such black-box algorithm. Here we ... more >>>

Michael Forbes, Amir Shpilka

Mulmuley recently gave an explicit version of Noether's Normalization lemma for ring of invariants of matrices under simultaneous conjugation, under the conjecture that there are deterministic black-box algorithms for polynomial identity testing (PIT). He argued that this gives evidence that constructing such algorithms for PIT is beyond current techniques. In ... more >>>

Mrinal Kumar, Shubhangi Saraf

We study the class of homogenous $\Sigma\Pi\Sigma\Pi(r)$ circuits, which are depth 4 homogenous circuits with top fanin bounded by $r$. We show that any homogenous $\Sigma\Pi\Sigma\Pi(r)$ circuit computing the permanent of an $n\times n$ matrix must have size at least $\exp\left(n^{\Omega(1/r)}\right)$.

In a recent result, Gupta, Kamath, Kayal and ... more >>>

Michael Forbes, Ramprasad Saptharishi, Amir Shpilka

We give deterministic black-box polynomial identity testing algorithms for multilinear read-once oblivious algebraic branching programs (ROABPs), in n^(lg^2 n) time. Further, our algorithm is oblivious to the order of the variables. This is the first sub-exponential time algorithm for this model. Furthermore, our result has no known analogue in the ... more >>>

Bin Fu

We show that

derandomizing polynomial identity testing over an arbitrary finite

field implies that NEXP does not have polynomial size boolean

circuits. In other words, for any finite field F(q) of size q,

$PIT_q\in NSUBEXP\Rightarrow NEXP\not\subseteq P/poly$, where

$PIT_q$ is the polynomial identity testing problem over F(q), and

NSUBEXP is ...
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Venkatesan Guruswami, Chaoping Xing

We give a length-efficient puncturing of Reed-Muller codes which preserves its distance properties. Formally, for the Reed-Muller code encoding $n$-variate degree-$d$ polynomials over ${\mathbb F}_q$ with $q \ge \Omega(d/\delta)$, we present an explicit (multi)-set $S \subseteq {\mathbb F}_q^n$ of size $N=\mathrm{poly}(n^d/\delta)$ such that every nonzero polynomial vanishes on at most ... more >>>

Swastik Kopparty, Shubhangi Saraf, Amir Shpilka

In this paper we show that the problem of deterministically factoring multivariate polynomials reduces to the problem of deterministic polynomial identity testing. Specifically, we show that given an arithmetic circuit (either explicitly or via black-box access) that computes a polynomial $f(X_1,\ldots,X_n)$, the task of computing arithmetic circuits for the factors ... more >>>

Zeev Dvir, Rafael Mendes de Oliveira, Amir Shpilka

Two polynomials $f, g \in F[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ are called shift-equivalent if there exists a vector $(a_1, \ldots, a_n) \in {F}^n$ such that the polynomial identity $f(x_1+a_1, \ldots, x_n+a_n) \equiv g(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ holds. Our main result is a new randomized algorithm that tests whether two given polynomials are shift equivalent. Our ... more >>>

Joshua Grochow, Toniann Pitassi

We introduce a new and very natural algebraic proof system, which has tight connections to (algebraic) circuit complexity. In particular, we show that any super-polynomial lower bound on any Boolean tautology in our proof system implies that the permanent does not have polynomial-size algebraic circuits ($VNP \neq VP$). As a ... more >>>

Rafael Mendes de Oliveira, Amir Shpilka, Ben Lee Volk

In this paper we give subexponential size hitting sets for bounded depth multilinear arithmetic formulas. Using the known relation between black-box PIT and lower bounds we obtain lower bounds for these models.

For depth-3 multilinear formulas, of size $\exp(n^\delta)$, we give a hitting set of size $\exp(\tilde{O}(n^{2/3 + 2\delta/3}))$. ... more >>>

Mrinal Kumar, Shubhangi Saraf

We study the complexity of representing polynomials as a sum of products of polynomials in few variables. More precisely, we study representations of the form $$P = \sum_{i = 1}^T \prod_{j = 1}^d Q_{ij}$$

such that each $Q_{ij}$ is an arbitrary polynomial that depends on at most $s$ variables.

Mrinal Kumar, Shubhangi Saraf

In recent years there has been a flurry of activity proving lower bounds for

homogeneous depth-4 arithmetic circuits [GKKS13, FLMS14, KLSS14, KS14c], which has brought us very close to statements that are known to imply VP $\neq$ VNP. It is a big question to go beyond homogeneity, and in ...
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Michael Forbes, Amir Shpilka, Iddo Tzameret, Avi Wigderson

We give upper and lower bounds on the power of subsystems of the Ideal Proof System (IPS), the algebraic proof system recently proposed by Grochow and Pitassi, where the circuits comprising the proof come from various restricted algebraic circuit classes. This mimics an established research direction in the ...
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Toniann Pitassi, Iddo Tzameret

We survey recent progress in the proof complexity of strong proof systems and its connection to algebraic circuit complexity, showing how the synergy between the two gives rise to new approaches to fundamental open questions, solutions to old problems, and new directions of research. In particular, we focus on tight ... more >>>

Rohit Gurjar, Thomas Thierauf

Given two matroids on the same ground set, the matroid intersection problem asks to find a common independent set of maximum size. We show that the linear matroid intersection problem is in quasi-NC$^2$. That is, it has uniform circuits of quasi-polynomial size $n^{O(\log n)}$, and $O(\log^2 n)$ depth. This generalizes ... more >>>

Michael Forbes, Amir Shpilka, Ben Lee Volk

We formalize a framework of algebraically natural lower bounds for algebraic circuits. Just as with the natural proofs notion of Razborov and Rudich for boolean circuit lower bounds, our notion of algebraically natural lower bounds captures nearly all lower bound techniques known. However, unlike the boolean setting, there has been ... more >>>

Joshua Grochow, Mrinal Kumar, Michael Saks, Shubhangi Saraf

We observe that a certain kind of algebraic proof - which covers essentially all known algebraic circuit lower bounds to date - cannot be used to prove lower bounds against VP if and only if what we call succinct hitting sets exist for VP. This is analogous to the Razborov-Rudich ... more >>>

Dominik Barth, Moritz Beck, Titus Dose, Christian Glaßer, Larissa Michler, Marc Technau

We study the computational complexity of emptiness problems for circuits over sets of natural numbers with the operations union, intersection, complement, addition, and multiplication. For most settings of allowed operations we precisely characterize the complexity in terms of completeness for classes like NL, NP, and PSPACE. The case where intersection, ... more >>>

Ramprasad Saptharishi, Anamay Tengse

We study the class of non-commutative Unambiguous circuits or Unique-Parse-Tree (UPT) circuits, and a related model of Few-Parse-Trees (FewPT) circuits (which were recently introduced by Lagarde, Malod and Perifel [LMP16] and Lagarde, Limaye and Srinivasan [LLS17]) and give the following constructions:

• An explicit hitting set of quasipolynomial size for ...
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Michael Forbes, Amir Shpilka

In this paper we study the complexity of constructing a hitting set for $\overline{VP}$, the class of polynomials that can be infinitesimally approximated by polynomials that are computed by polynomial sized algebraic circuits, over the real or complex numbers. Specifically, we show that there is a PSPACE algorithm that given ... more >>>

Michael Forbes, Sumanta Ghosh, Nitin Saxena

Derandomization of blackbox identity testing reduces to extremely special circuit models. After a line of work, it is known that focusing on circuits with constant-depth and constantly many variables is enough (Agrawal,Ghosh,Saxena, STOC'18) to get to general hitting-sets and circuit lower bounds. This inspires us to study circuits with few ... more >>>

Vikraman Arvind, Abhranil Chatterjee, Rajit Datta, Partha Mukhopadhyay

Let $C$ be a depth-3 $\Sigma\Pi\Sigma$ arithmetic circuit of size $s$,

computing a polynomial $f \in \mathbb{F}[x_1,\ldots, x_n]$ (where $\mathbb{F}$ = $\mathbb{Q}$ or

$\mathbb{C}$) with fan-in of product gates bounded by $d$. We give a

deterministic time $2^d \text{poly}(n,s)$ polynomial identity testing

algorithm to check whether $f \equiv 0$ or ...
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Mrinal Kumar, Ramprasad Saptharishi, Anamay Tengse

The classical lemma of Ore-DeMillo-Lipton-Schwartz-Zippel states that any nonzero polynomial $f(x_1,\ldots, x_n)$ of degree at most $s$ will evaluate to a nonzero value at some point on a grid $S^n \subseteq \mathbb{F}^n$ with $|S| > s$. Thus, there is a deterministic polynomial identity test (PIT) for all degree-$s$ size-$s$ ... more >>>

Alexey Milovanov

This text is a development of a preprint of Ankit Gupta.

We present an approach for devising a deterministic polynomial time whitekbox identity testing (PIT) algorithm for depth-$4$ circuits with bounded top fanin.

This approach is similar to Kayal-Saraf approach for depth-$3$ circuits. Kayal and Saraf based their ...
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Robert Andrews

We show that lower bounds for explicit constant-variate polynomials over fields of characteristic $p > 0$ are sufficient to derandomize polynomial identity testing over fields of characteristic $p$. In this setting, existing work on hardness-randomness tradeoffs for polynomial identity testing requires either the characteristic to be sufficiently large or the ... more >>>

Dori Medini, Amir Shpilka

In this paper we study polynomials in VP$_e$ (polynomial-sized formulas) and in $\Sigma\Pi\Sigma$ (polynomial-size depth-$3$ circuits) whose orbits, under the action of the affine group GL$^{aff}_n({\mathbb F})$, are dense in their ambient class. We construct hitting sets and interpolating sets for these orbits as well as give reconstruction algorithms.

As ... more >>>

Zeyu Guo

We introduce the problem of constructing explicit variety evasive subspace families. Given a family $\mathcal{F}$ of subvarieties of a projective or affine space, a collection $\mathcal{H}$ of projective or affine $k$-subspaces is $(\mathcal{F},\epsilon)$-evasive if for every $\mathcal{V}\in\mathcal{F}$, all but at most $\epsilon$-fraction of $W\in\mathcal{H}$ intersect every irreducible component of $\mathcal{V}$ ... more >>>

Robert Andrews, Michael Forbes

We show that any nonzero polynomial in the ideal generated by the $r \times r$ minors of an $n \times n$ matrix $X$ can be used to efficiently approximate the determinant. Specifically, for any nonzero polynomial $f$ in this ideal, we construct a small depth-three $f$-oracle circuit that approximates the ... more >>>

Vikraman Arvind, Pushkar Joglekar

In this paper we study the problem of efficiently factorizing polynomials in the free noncommutative ring F of polynomials in noncommuting variables x_1,x_2,…,x_n over the field F. We obtain the following result:

Given a noncommutative arithmetic formula of size s computing a noncommutative polynomial f in F as input, where ... more >>>

Abhibhav Garg, Rafael Mendes de Oliveira, Akash Sengupta

We prove a robust generalization of a Sylvester-Gallai type theorem for quadratic polynomials, generalizing the result in [S'20].

More precisely, given a parameter $0 < \delta \leq 1$ and a finite collection $\mathcal{F}$ of irreducible and pairwise independent polynomials of degree at most 2, we say that $\mathcal{F}$ is a ...
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Vikraman Arvind, Pushkar Joglekar

In continuation to our recent work on noncommutative

polynomial factorization, we consider the factorization problem for

matrices of polynomials and show the following results.

\begin{itemize}

\item Given as input a full rank $d\times d$ matrix $M$ whose entries

$M_{ij}$ are polynomials in the free noncommutative ring

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Robert Andrews

We show that lower bounds on the border rank of matrix multiplication can be used to non-trivially derandomize polynomial identity testing for small algebraic circuits. Letting $\underline{R}(n)$ denote the border rank of $n \times n \times n$ matrix multiplication, we construct a hitting set generator with seed length $O(\sqrt{n} \cdot ... more >>>

Dieter van Melkebeek, Andrew Morgan

We introduce a hitting set generator for Polynomial Identity Testing

based on evaluations of low-degree univariate rational functions at

abscissas associated with the variables. Despite the univariate

nature, we establish an equivalence up to rescaling with a generator

introduced by Shpilka and Volkovich, which has a similar structure but

uses ...
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Vishwas Bhargava, Shubhangi Saraf, Ilya Volkovich

We develop a new technique for analyzing linear independence of multivariate polynomials. One of our main technical contributions is a \emph{Small Witness for Linear Independence} (SWLI) lemma which states the following.

If the polynomials $f_1,f_2, \ldots, f_k \in \F[X]$ over $X=\{x_1, \ldots, x_n\}$ are $\F$-linearly independent then there exists ...
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