Boaz Barak, Oded Goldreich

We put forward a new type of

computationally-sound proof systems, called universal-arguments,

which are related but different from both CS-proofs (as defined

by Micali) and arguments (as defined by Brassard, Chaum and

Crepeau). In particular, we adopt the instance-based

prover-efficiency paradigm of CS-proofs, but follow the

computational-soundness condition of ...
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Oded Goldreich

Zero-knowledge proofs are proofs that are both convincing and yet

yield nothing beyond the validity of the assertion being proven.

Since their introduction about twenty years ago,

zero-knowledge proofs have attracted a lot of attention

and have, in turn, contributed to the development of other

areas of cryptography and complexity ...
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Mihir Bellare, Oded Goldreich

This note points out a gap between two natural formulations of

the concept of a proof of knowledge, and shows that in all

natural cases (e.g., NP-statements) this gap can be closed.

The aforementioned formulations differ by whether they refer to

(all possible) probabilistic or deterministic prover strategies.

Unlike ...
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Tom Gur, Ran Raz

We study the power of Arthur-Merlin probabilistic proof systems in the data stream model. We show a canonical $\mathcal{AM}$ streaming algorithm for a wide class of data stream problems. The algorithm offers a tradeoff between the length of the proof and the space complexity that is needed to verify it.

... more >>>Tom Gur, Ron Rothblum

We initiate a study of non-interactive proofs of proximity. These proof-systems consist of a verifier that wishes to ascertain the validity of a given statement, using a short (sublinear length) explicitly given proof, and a sublinear number of queries to its input. Since the verifier cannot even read the entire ... more >>>

Yael Tauman Kalai, Ran Raz, Ron Rothblum

We construct a 1-round delegation scheme (i.e., argument-system) for every language computable in time t=t(n), where the running time of the prover is poly(t) and the running time of the verifier is n*polylog(t). In particular, for every language in P we obtain a delegation scheme with almost linear time verification. ... more >>>

Oded Goldreich, Tom Gur, Ron Rothblum

Proofs of proximity are probabilistic proof systems in which the verifier only queries a sub-linear number of input bits, and soundness only means that, with high probability, the input is close to an accepting input. In their minimal form, called Merlin-Arthur proofs of proximity (MAP), the verifier receives, in addition ... more >>>

Oded Goldreich, Tom Gur

Universal locally testable codes (Universal-LTCs), recently introduced in our companion paper [GG16], are codes that admit local tests for membership in numerous possible subcodes, allowing for testing properties of the encoded message. In this work, we initiate the study of the NP analogue of these codes, wherein the testing procedures ... more >>>

Tom Gur, Yang P. Liu, Ron D. Rothblum

Non-interactive proofs of proximity allow a sublinear-time verifier to check that

a given input is close to the language, given access to a short proof. Two natural

variants of such proof systems are MA-proofs of Proximity (MAP), in which the proof

is a function of the input only, and AM-proofs ...
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