Scott Aaronson, Adam Bouland, Joseph Fitzsimons, Mitchell Lee

We explore the space "just above" BQP by defining a complexity class PDQP (Product Dynamical Quantum Polynomial time) which is larger than BQP but does not contain NP relative to an oracle. The class is defined by imagining that quantum computers can perform measurements that do not collapse the ... more >>>

Nir Bitansky, Akshay Degwekar, Vinod Vaikuntanathan

Cryptography relies on the computational hardness of structured problems. While one-way functions, the most basic cryptographic object, do not seem to require much structure, as we advance up the ranks into public-key cryptography and beyond, we seem to require that certain structured problems are hard. For example, factoring, quadratic residuosity, ... more >>>

Itay Berman, Akshay Degwekar, Ron D. Rothblum, Prashant Vasudevan

The polarization lemma for statistical distance ($\mathrm{SD}$), due to Sahai and Vadhan (JACM, 2003), is an efficient transformation taking as input a pair of circuits $(C_0,C_1)$ and an integer $k$ and outputting a new pair of circuits $(D_0,D_1)$ such that if $\mathrm{SD}(C_0,C_1)\geq\alpha$ then $\mathrm{SD}(D_0,D_1) \geq 1-2^{-k}$ and if $\mathrm{SD}(C_0,C_1) \leq ... more >>>

Inbar Kaslasi, Prashant Nalini Vasudevan, Guy Rothblum, Ron Rothblum, Adam Sealfon

A statistical zero-knowledge proof (SZK) for a problem $\Pi$ enables a computationally unbounded prover to convince a polynomial-time verifier that $x \in \Pi$ without revealing any additional information about $x$ to the verifier, in a strong information-theoretic sense.

Suppose, however, that the prover wishes to convince the verifier that $k$ ... more >>>