Oded Goldreich

Various types of probabilistic proof systems have played

a central role in the development of computer science in the last decade.

In this exposition, we concentrate on three such proof systems ---

interactive proofs, zero-knowledge proofs,

and probabilistic checkable proofs --- stressing the essential

role of randomness in each ...
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Luca Trevisan

Khot formulated in 2002 the "Unique Games Conjectures" stating that, for any epsilon > 0, given a system of constraints of a certain form, and the promise that there is an assignment that satisfies a 1-epsilon fraction of constraints, it is intractable to find a solution that satisfies even an ... more >>>

Ran Raz

We show how to encode $2^n$ (classical) bits $a_1,...,a_{2^n}$

by a single quantum state $|\Psi \rangle$ of size $O(n)$ qubits,

such that:

for any constant $k$ and any $i_1,...,i_k \in \{1,...,2^n\}$,

the values of the bits $a_{i_1},...,a_{i_k}$ can be retrieved

from $|\Psi \rangle$ by a one-round Arthur-Merlin interactive ...
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