Scott Aaronson, Alex Arkhipov

We give new evidence that quantum computers -- moreover, rudimentary quantum computers built entirely out of linear-optical elements -- cannot be efficiently simulated by classical computers. In particular, we define a

model of computation in which identical photons are generated, sent through a linear-optical network, then nonadaptively measured to count ...
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Scott Aaronson

One of the crown jewels of complexity theory is Valiant's 1979 theorem that computing the permanent of an n*n matrix is #P-hard. Here we show that, by using the model of linear-optical quantum computing---and in particular, a universality theorem due to Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn---one can give a different and ... more >>>

Adam Bouland, Scott Aaronson

In 1994, Reck et al. showed how to realize any linear-optical unitary transformation using a product of beamsplitters and phaseshifters. Here we show that any single beamsplitter that nontrivially mixes two modes, also densely generates the set of m by m unitary transformations (or orthogonal transformations, in the real case) ... more >>>