Ilario Bonacina, Neil Thapen

Recently it was shown that PLS is not contained in PPADS (ECCC report TR22-058). We show that this separation already implies that PLS is not contained in PPP. These separations are shown for the decision tree model of TFNP and imply similar separations in the type-2, relativized model.

Important note. ... more >>>

Noah Fleming, Stefan Grosser, Toniann Pitassi, Robert Robere

The complexity class PPP contains all total search problems many-one reducible to the PIGEON problem, where we are given a succinct encoding of a function mapping n+1 pigeons to n holes, and must output two pigeons that collide in a hole. PPP is one of the “original five” syntactically-defined subclasses ... more >>>

Huck Bennett, Surendra Ghentiyala, Noah Stephens-Davidowitz

We study the problem of finding multicollisions, that is, the total search problem in which the input is a function $\mathcal{C} : [A] \to [B]$ (represented as a circuit) and the goal is to find $L \leq \lceil A/B \rceil$ distinct elements $x_1,\ldots, x_L \in A$ such that $\mathcal{C}(x_1) = ... more >>>