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TR23-015 | 20th February 2023 23:24

A Qubit, a Coin, and an Advice String Walk Into a Relational Problem



Relational problems (those with many possible valid outputs) are different from decision problems, but it is easy to forget just how different. This paper initiates the study of FBQP/qpoly, the class of relational problems solvable in quantum polynomial-time with the help of polynomial-sized quantum advice, along with its analogues for deterministic and randomized computation (FP, FBPP) and advice (/poly, /rpoly).

Our first result is that FBQP/qpoly != FBQP/poly, unconditionally, with no oracle---a striking contrast with what we know about the analogous decision classes. The proof repurposes the separation between quantum and classical one-way communication complexities due to Bar-Yossef, Jayram, and Kerenidis. We discuss how this separation raises the prospect of near-term experiments to demonstrate "quantum information supremacy," a form of quantum supremacy that would not depend on unproved complexity assumptions.

Our second result is that FBPP is not contained in FP/poly---that is, Adleman's Theorem fails for relational problems---unless PSPACE is contained in NP/poly. Our proof uses IP=PSPACE and time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity. On the other hand, we show that proving FBPP not in FP/poly will be hard, as it implies a superpolynomial circuit lower bound for PromiseBPEXP.

We prove the following further results:
* Unconditionally, FP != FBPP and FP/poly != FBPP/poly (even when these classes are carefully defined).
* FBPP/poly = FBPP/rpoly (and likewise for FBQP). For sampling problems, by contrast, SampBPP/poly != SampBPP/rpoly (and likewise for SampBQP).

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