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TR02-045 | 8th July 2002 00:00

Efficient and Concurrent Zero-Knowledge from any public coin HVZK protocol


Authors: Daniele Micciancio, Erez Petrank
Publication: 16th July 2002 13:47
Downloads: 3716


We show how to efficiently transform any public coin honest verifier
zero knowledge proof system into a proof system that is concurrent
zero-knowledge with respect to any (possibly cheating) verifier via
black box simulation. By efficient we mean that our transformation
incurs only an additive overhead, both in terms of the number of
rounds and the computational and communication complexity of each
round, independently of the complexity of the original protocol.
Moreover, the transformation preserves (up to negligible additive
terms) the soundness and completeness error probabilities. The new
proof system is proved secure based on the Decisional Diffie-Hellman
(DDH) assumption, in the standard model of computation, i.e., no
random oracles, shared random strings, or public key infrastructure
is assumed. In addition to the introduction of a practical protocol,
this construction provides yet another example if ideas
in plausibility results that turn into ideas in the construction of
practical protocols.

We prove our main result by developing a mechanism for simulatable
commitments that may be of independent interest. In particular, it
allows a weaker result that is interesting as well. We present
an efficient transformation of any honest verifier public-coin
computational zero-knowledge proof into a (public coin) computational
zero-knowledge proof secure against any verifier. The overhead of this
second transformation is minimal: we only increase the number of rounds
by 3, and increase the computational cost by 2 public key operations for
each round of the original protocol. The cost of the more general
transformation leading to concurrent zero knowledge is also close
to optimal (for black box simulation), requiring only omega(log n)
additional rounds (where n is a security parameter and omega(log n) can
be any superlogarithmic function of n (e.g., log(n)log^*(n)), and
omega(log n) additional public key operations for each round of the
original protocol.

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