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Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity

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REPORTS > AUTHORS > MEENA MAHAJAN:
All reports by Author Meena Mahajan:

TR17-037 | 25th February 2017
Olaf Beyersdorff, Leroy Chew, Meena Mahajan, Anil Shukla

Understanding Cutting Planes for QBFs

We define a cutting planes system CP+$\forall$red for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF) and analyse the proof-theoretic strength of this new calculus. While in the propositional case, Cutting Planes is of intermediate strength between resolution and Frege, our findings here show that the situation in QBF is slightly more complex: while ... more >>>


TR16-164 | 25th October 2016
Andreas Krebs, Meena Mahajan, Anil Shukla

Relating two width measures for resolution proofs

In this short note, we revisit two hardness measures for resolution proofs: width and asymmetric width. It is known that for every unsatisfiable CNF F,

width(F \derives \Box) \le awidth(F \derives \Box) + max{ awidth(F \derives \Box), width(F)}.

We give a simple direct proof of the upper bound, ... more >>>


TR16-038 | 15th March 2016
Meena Mahajan, Nitin Saurabh

Some Complete and Intermediate Polynomials in Algebraic Complexity Theory

Revisions: 2

We provide a list of new natural VNP-intermediate polynomial
families, based on basic (combinatorial) NP-complete problems that
are complete under \emph{parsimonious} reductions. Over finite
fields, these families are in VNP, and under the plausible
hypothesis $\text{Mod}_pP \not\subseteq P/\text{poly}$, are neither VNP-hard (even under
oracle-circuit reductions) nor in VP. Prior to ... more >>>


TR15-204 | 14th December 2015
Meena Mahajan, Anuj Tawari

Sums of read-once formulas: How many summands suffice?

Revisions: 1

An arithmetic read-once formula (ROF) is a formula (circuit of fan-out
1) over
$+, \times$ where each variable labels at most one leaf.
Every multilinear polynomial can be expressed as the sum of ROFs.
In this work, we prove, for certain multilinear polynomials,
a tight lower bound ... more >>>


TR15-202 | 11th December 2015
Meena Mahajan, Raghavendra Rao B V, Karteek Sreenivasaiah

Building above read-once polynomials: identity testing and hardness of representation

Polynomial Identity Testing (PIT) algorithms have focused on
polynomials computed either by small alternation-depth arithmetic circuits, or by read-restricted
formulas. Read-once polynomials (ROPs) are computed by read-once
formulas (ROFs) and are the simplest of read-restricted polynomials.
Building structures above these, we show the following:
\begin{enumerate}
\item A deterministic polynomial-time non-black-box ... more >>>


TR15-152 | 16th September 2015
Olaf Beyersdorff, Leroy Chew, Meena Mahajan, Anil Shukla

Are Short Proofs Narrow? QBF Resolution is not Simple.

The groundbreaking paper `Short proofs are narrow - resolution made simple' by Ben-Sasson and Wigderson (J. ACM 2001) introduces what is today arguably the main technique to obtain resolution lower bounds: to show a lower bound for the width of proofs. Another important measure for resolution is space, and in ... more >>>


TR15-118 | 23rd July 2015
Hervé Fournier, Nutan Limaye, Meena Mahajan, Srikanth Srinivasan

The shifted partial derivative complexity of Elementary Symmetric Polynomials

We continue the study of the shifted partial derivative measure, introduced by Kayal (ECCC 2012), which has been used to prove many strong depth-4 circuit lower bounds starting from the work of Kayal, and that of Gupta et al. (CCC 2013).

We show a strong lower bound on the dimension ... more >>>


TR15-059 | 10th April 2015
Olaf Beyersdorff, Leroy Chew, Meena Mahajan, Anil Shukla

Feasible Interpolation for QBF Resolution Calculi

In sharp contrast to classical proof complexity we are currently short of lower bound techniques for QBF proof systems. In this paper we establish the feasible interpolation technique for all resolution-based QBF systems, whether modelling CDCL or expansion-based solving. This both provides the first general lower bound method for QBF ... more >>>


TR14-180 | 22nd December 2014
Anna Gal, Jing-Tang Jang, Nutan Limaye, Meena Mahajan, Karteek Sreenivasaiah

Space-Efficient Approximations for Subset Sum

SUBSET SUM is a well known NP-complete problem:
given $t \in Z^{+}$ and a set $S$ of $m$ positive integers, output YES if and only if there is a subset $S^\prime \subseteq S$ such that the sum of all numbers in $S^\prime$ equals $t$. The problem and its search ... more >>>


TR14-163 | 29th November 2014
Arnaud Durand, Meena Mahajan, Guillaume Malod, Nicolas de Rugy-Altherre, Nitin Saurabh

Homomorphism polynomials complete for VP

The VP versus VNP question, introduced by Valiant, is probably the most important open question in algebraic complexity theory. Thanks to completeness results, a variant of this question, VBP versus VNP, can be succinctly restated as asking whether the permanent of a generic matrix can be written as a determinant ... more >>>


TR13-102 | 17th July 2013
Andreas Krebs, Nutan Limaye, Meena Mahajan, Karteek Sreenivasaiah

Small Depth Proof Systems

A proof system for a language $L$ is a function $f$ such that Range$(f)$ is exactly $L$. In this paper, we look at proofsystems from a circuit complexity point of view and study proof systems that are computationally very restricted. The restriction we study is: they can be computed by ... more >>>


TR12-079 | 14th June 2012
Olaf Beyersdorff, Samir Datta, Andreas Krebs, Meena Mahajan, Gido Scharfenberger-Fabian, Karteek Sreenivasaiah, Michael Thomas, Heribert Vollmer

Verifying Proofs in Constant Depth

In this paper we initiate the study of proof systems where verification of proofs proceeds by NC0 circuits. We investigate the question which languages admit proof systems in this very restricted model. Formulated alternatively, we ask which languages can be enumerated by NC0 functions. Our results show that the answer ... more >>>


TR10-103 | 28th June 2010
Andreas Krebs, Nutan Limaye, Meena Mahajan

Counting paths in VPA is complete for \#NC$^1$

We give a \#NC$^1$ upper bound for the problem of counting accepting paths in any fixed visibly pushdown automaton. Our algorithm involves a non-trivial adaptation of the arithmetic formula evaluation algorithm of Buss, Cook, Gupta, Ramachandran (BCGR: SICOMP 21(4), 1992). We also show that the problem is \#NC$^1$ hard. Our ... more >>>


TR10-101 | 25th June 2010
Samir Datta, Meena Mahajan, Raghavendra Rao B V, Michael Thomas, Heribert Vollmer

Counting Classes and the Fine Structure between NC$^1$ and L.

The class NC$^1$ of problems solvable by bounded fan-in circuit families of logarithmic depth is known to be contained in logarithmic space L, but not much about the converse is known. In this paper we examine the structure of classes in between NC$^1$ and L based on counting functions or, ... more >>>


TR08-048 | 8th April 2008
Meena Mahajan, B. V. Raghavendra Rao

Arithmetic circuits, syntactic multilinearity, and the limitations of skew formulae

Functions in arithmetic NC1 are known to have equivalent constant
width polynomial degree circuits, but the converse containment is
unknown. In a partial answer to this question, we show that syntactic
multilinear circuits of constant width and polynomial degree can be
depth-reduced, though the resulting circuits need not be ... more >>>


TR07-087 | 11th July 2007
Nutan Limaye, Meena Mahajan, B. V. Raghavendra Rao

Arithmetizing classes around NC^1 and L

The parallel complexity class NC^1 has many equivalent models such as
polynomial size formulae and bounded width branching
programs. Caussinus et al. \cite{CMTV} considered arithmetizations of
two of these classes, #NC^1 and #BWBP. We further this study to
include arithmetization of other classes. In particular, we show that
counting paths ... more >>>


TR06-100 | 17th July 2006
Meena Mahajan, Jayalal Sarma

On the Complexity of Rank and Rigidity

Given a matrix $M$ over a ring \Ringk, a target rank $r$ and a bound
$k$, we want to decide whether the rank of $M$ can be brought down to
below $r$ by changing at most $k$ entries of $M$. This is a decision
version of the well-studied notion of ... more >>>


TR06-009 | 10th January 2006
Nutan Limaye, Meena Mahajan, Jayalal Sarma

Evaluating Monotone Circuits on Cylinders, Planes and Tori

We re-examine the complexity of evaluating monotone planar circuits
MPCVP, with special attention to circuits with cylindrical
embeddings. MPCVP is known to be in NC^3, and for the special
case of upward stratified circuits, it is known to be in
LogDCFL. We characterize cylindricality, which ... more >>>


TR00-088 | 28th November 2000
Meena Mahajan, V. Vinay

A note on the hardness of the characteristic polynomial


In this note, we consider the problem of computing the
coefficients of the characteristic polynomial of a given
matrix, and the related problem of verifying the
coefficents.

Santha and Tan [CC98] show that verifying the determinant
(the constant term in the characteristic polynomial) is
complete for the class C=L, ... more >>>


TR99-030 | 9th July 1999
Meena Mahajan, P R Subramanya, V. Vinay

A Combinatorial Algorithm for Pfaffians

The Pfaffian of an oriented graph is closely linked to
Perfect Matching. It is also naturally related to the determinant of
an appropriately defined matrix. This relation between Pfaffian and
determinant is usually exploited to give a fast algorithm for
computing Pfaffians.

We present the first completely combinatorial algorithm for ... more >>>


TR99-008 | 19th March 1999
Eric Allender, Vikraman Arvind, Meena Mahajan

Arithmetic Complexity, Kleene Closure, and Formal Power Series

Revisions: 1 , Comments: 1

The aim of this paper is to use formal power series techniques to
study the structure of small arithmetic complexity classes such as
GapNC^1 and GapL. More precisely, we apply the Kleene closure of
languages and the formal power series operations of inversion and
root ... more >>>


TR98-012 | 2nd February 1998
Meena Mahajan, V. Vinay

Determinant: Old Algorithms, New Insights


In this paper we approach the problem of computing the characteristic
polynomial of a matrix from the combinatorial viewpoint. We present
several combinatorial characterizations of the coefficients of the
characteristic polynomial, in terms of walks and closed walks of
different kinds in the underlying graph. We develop algorithms based
more >>>


TR97-036 | 1st August 1997
Meena Mahajan, V. Vinay

Determinant: Combinatorics, Algorithms, and Complexity

We prove a new combinatorial characterization of the
determinant. The characterization yields a simple
combinatorial algorithm for computing the
determinant. Hitherto, all (known) algorithms for
determinant have been based on linear algebra. Our
combinatorial algorithm requires no division and works over
arbitrary commutative rings. It also lends itself to
more >>>


TR97-033 | 1st August 1997
Meena Mahajan, Venkatesh Raman

Parametrizing Above Guaranteed Values: MaxSat and MaxCut

In this paper we investigate the parametrized
complexity of the problems MaxSat and MaxCut using the
framework developed by Downey and Fellows.

Let $G$ be an arbitrary graph having $n$ vertices and $m$
edges, and let $f$ be an arbitrary CNF formula with $m$
clauses on $n$ variables. We improve ... more >>>


TR95-043 | 14th September 1995
Eric Allender, Jia Jiao, Meena Mahajan, V. Vinay

Non-Commutative Arithmetic Circuits: Depth Reduction and Size Lower Bounds

We investigate the phenomenon of depth-reduction in commutative
and non-commutative arithmetic circuits. We prove that in the
commutative setting, uniform semi-unbounded arithmetic circuits of
logarithmic depth are as powerful as uniform arithmetic circuits of
polynomial degree; earlier proofs did not work in the ... more >>>




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