TR97-048 Authors: Soren Riis, Meera Sitharam

Publication: 21st October 1997 12:12

Downloads: 2225

Keywords:

The semantics of decision problems are always essentially independent of the

underlying representation. Thus the space of input data (under appropriate

indexing) is closed

under action of the symmetrical group $S_n$ (for a specific data-size)

and the input-output relation is closed under the action of $S_n$.

We show that symmetries of this nature (together with uniformity

constraints) have profound consequences in the context of Nullstellensatz

Proofs and Polynomial Calculus Proofs (Gr\"obner basis proofs).

Our main result states that for any co-NP (i.e. Universal Second Order)

sentence $\psi$ any non-constant degree lower bound on Nullstellensatz

proofs of $\psi_n$ immediately lifts to a

linear-degree lower bound.

This kind of ``gap'' theorem is new in this area of complexity theory.

The gap theorem is valid for Polynomial Calculus proofs as well,

and allows us immediately to solve a list of open problems concerning

degree lower bounds.

We get a linear degree (linear in the model size)

lower bounds for various matching principles. This solves an open

problem first posed in \cite{BIKPP}. The bounds

also improves the degree lower bounds of $\Omega(n^{\epsilon})$ achieved

in \cite{BIKPRS} as well as the degree lower bounds achieved

in \cite{BR}.

Another corollary to our main technical result

underlying the gap theorem is a {\it direct} linear degree lower bound on

proving primality. This improves recent work by \cite{Krajicek}.

We also

give a linear Polynomial Calculus degree lower bound on the onto-Pigeonhole

principle answering a question from \cite{Razborov1}.