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Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity

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Reports tagged with query complexity:
TR02-002 | 3rd January 2002
Howard Barnum, Michael Saks

A lower bound on the quantum query complexity of read-once functions

We establish a lower bound of $\Omega{(\sqrt{n})}$ on the bounded-error quantum query complexity of read-once Boolean functions, providing evidence for the conjecture that $\Omega(\sqrt{D(f)})$ is a lower bound for all Boolean functions.Our technique extends a result of Ambainis, based on the idea that successful computation of a function requires ``decoherence'' ... more >>>

TR02-072 | 12th November 2002
Scott Aaronson

Quantum Lower Bound for Recursive Fourier Sampling

We revisit the oft-neglected 'recursive Fourier sampling' (RFS) problem, introduced by Bernstein and Vazirani to prove an oracle separation between BPP and BQP. We show that the known quantum algorithm for RFS is essentially optimal, despite its seemingly wasteful need to uncompute information. This implies that, to place BQP outside ... more >>>

TR03-037 | 30th April 2003
Ziv Bar-Yossef

Sampling Lower Bounds via Information Theory

We present a novel technique, based on the Jensen-Shannon divergence
from information theory, to prove lower bounds on the query complexity
of sampling algorithms that approximate functions over arbitrary
domain and range. Unlike previous methods, our technique does not
use a reduction from a binary decision problem, but rather ... more >>>

TR05-082 | 3rd June 2005
Jorge Castro

On the Query Complexity of Quantum Learners

This paper introduces a framework for quantum exact learning via queries, the so-called quantum protocol. It is shown that usual protocols in the classical learning setting have quantum counterparts. A combinatorial notion, the general halving dimension, is also introduced. Given a quantum protocol and a target concept class, the general ... more >>>

TR07-125 | 11th October 2007
Ali Juma, Valentine Kabanets, Charles Rackoff, Amir Shpilka

The black-box query complexity of polynomial summation

For any given Boolean formula $\phi(x_1,\dots,x_n)$, one can
efficiently construct (using \emph{arithmetization}) a low-degree
polynomial $p(x_1,\dots,x_n)$ that agrees with $\phi$ over all
points in the Boolean cube $\{0,1\}^n$; the constructed polynomial
$p$ can be interpreted as a polynomial over an arbitrary field
$\mathbb{F}$. The problem ... more >>>

TR08-005 | 15th January 2008
Scott Aaronson, Avi Wigderson

Algebrization: A New Barrier in Complexity Theory

Any proof of P!=NP will have to overcome two barriers: relativization
and natural proofs. Yet over the last decade, we have seen circuit
lower bounds (for example, that PP does not have linear-size circuits)
that overcome both barriers simultaneously. So the question arises of
whether there ... more >>>

TR09-110 | 5th November 2009
Scott Aaronson, Andris Ambainis

The Need for Structure in Quantum Speedups

Revisions: 1

Is there a general theorem that tells us when we can hope for exponential speedups from quantum algorithms, and when we cannot? In this paper, we make two advances toward such a theorem, in the black-box model where most quantum algorithms operate.

First, we show that for any problem that ... more >>>

TR10-075 | 22nd April 2010
Ben Reichardt

Least span program witness size equals the general adversary lower bound on quantum query complexity

Span programs form a linear-algebraic model of computation, with span program "size" used in proving classical lower bounds. Quantum query complexity is a coherent generalization, for quantum algorithms, of classical decision-tree complexity. It is bounded below by a semi-definite program (SDP) known as the general adversary bound. We connect these ... more >>>

TR10-080 | 5th May 2010
Andrew Drucker

Improved Direct Product Theorems for Randomized Query Complexity

Revisions: 1

The direct product problem is a fundamental question in complexity theory which seeks to understand how the difficulty of computing a function on each of $k$ independent inputs scales with $k$.
We prove the following direct product theorem (DPT) for query complexity: if every $T$-query algorithm
has success probability at ... more >>>

TR10-110 | 14th July 2010
Ben Reichardt

Span programs and quantum query algorithms

Quantum query complexity measures the number of input bits that must be read by a quantum algorithm in order to evaluate a function. Hoyer et al. (2007) have generalized the adversary semi-definite program that lower-bounds quantum query complexity. By giving a matching algorithm, we show that the general adversary lower ... more >>>

TR10-121 | 28th July 2010
Ashwin Nayak

Inverting a permutation is as hard as unordered search

Revisions: 1

We describe a reduction from the problem of unordered search(with a unique solution) to the problem of inverting a permutation. Since there is a straightforward reduction in the reverse direction, the problems are essentially equivalent.

The reduction helps us bypass the Bennett-Bernstein-Brassard-Vazirani hybrid argument (1997} and the Ambainis quantum adversary ... more >>>

TR10-191 | 9th December 2010
Andris Ambainis, Loïck Magnin, Martin Roetteler, Jérémie Roland

Symmetry-assisted adversaries for quantum state generation

We introduce a new quantum adversary method to prove lower bounds on the query complexity of the quantum state generation problem. This problem encompasses both, the computation of partial or total functions and the preparation of target quantum states. There has been hope for quite some time that quantum ... more >>>

TR11-001 | 2nd January 2011
Scott Aaronson

Impossibility of Succinct Quantum Proofs for Collision-Freeness

We show that any quantum algorithm to decide whether a function $f:\left[n\right] \rightarrow\left[ n\right] $ is a permutation or far from a permutation\ must make $\Omega\left( n^{1/3}/w\right) $ queries to $f$, even if the algorithm is given a $w$-qubit quantum witness in support of $f$ being a permutation. This implies ... more >>>

TR11-038 | 10th March 2011
Jiapeng Zhang

On the query complexity for Showing Dense Model

A theorem of Green, Tao, and Ziegler can be stated as follows: if $R$ is a pseudorandom distribution, and $D$ is a dense distribution of $R,$ then $D$ can be modeled as a distribution $M$ which is dense in uniform distribution such that $D$ and $M$ are indistinguishable. The reduction ... more >>>

TR11-092 | 2nd June 2011
Doerr Benjamin, Winzen Carola

Memory-Restricted Black-Box Complexity

We show that the black-box complexity with memory restriction one of the $n$-dimensional $\onemax$ function class is at most $2n$. This disproves the $\Theta(n \log n)$ conjecture of Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory of Computing Systems 39 (2006) 525--544).

more >>>

TR11-122 | 14th September 2011
Gillat Kol, Ran Raz

Competing Provers Protocols for Circuit Evaluation

Let $C$ be a (fan-in $2$) Boolean circuit of size $s$ and depth $d$, and let $x$ be an input for $C$. Assume that a verifier that knows $C$ but doesn't know $x$ can access the low degree extension of $x$ at one random point. Two competing provers try to ... more >>>

TR12-002 | 4th January 2012
Akinori Kawachi, Benjamin Rossman, Osamu Watanabe

Query Complexity and Error Tolerance of Witness Finding Algorithms

Revisions: 3

We propose an abstract framework for studying search-to-decision reductions for NP. Specifically, we study the following witness finding problem: for a hidden nonempty set $W\subseteq\{0,1\}^n$, the goal is to output a witness in $W$ with constant probability by making randomized queries of the form ``is $Q\cap W$ nonempty?''\ where $Q\subseteq\{0,1\}^n$. ... more >>>

TR12-087 | 4th July 2012
Peyman Afshani, Manindra Agrawal, Doerr Benjamin, Winzen Carola, Kasper Green Larsen, Kurt Mehlhorn

The Deterministic and Randomized Query Complexity of a Simple Guessing Game

Revisions: 1

We study the $\leadingones$ game, a Mastermind-type guessing game first
regarded as a test case in the complexity theory of randomized search
heuristics. The first player, Carole, secretly chooses a string $z \in \{0,1\}^n$ and a
permutation $\pi$ of $[n]$.
The goal of the second player, Paul, is to ... more >>>

TR12-094 | 19th July 2012
Sanjeev Arora, Arnab Bhattacharyya, Rajsekar Manokaran, Sushant Sachdeva

Testing Permanent Oracles -- Revisited

Suppose we are given an oracle that claims to approximate the permanent for most matrices $X$, where $X$ is chosen from the Gaussian ensemble (the matrix entries are i.i.d. univariate complex Gaussians). Can we test that the oracle satisfies this claim? This paper gives a polynomial-time algorithm for the task.

... more >>>

TR12-099 | 5th August 2012
Nikos Leonardos

An improved lower bound for the randomized decision tree complexity of recursive majority

Revisions: 1

We prove that the randomized decision tree complexity of the recursive majority-of-three is $\Omega(2.6^d)$, where $d$ is the depth of the recursion. The proof is by a bottom up induction, which is same in spirit as the one in the proof of Saks and Wigderson in their FOCS 1986 paper ... more >>>

TR12-117 | 17th September 2012
Loïck Magnin, Jérémie Roland

Explicit relation between all lower bound techniques for quantum query complexity

The polynomial method and the adversary method are the two main techniques to prove lower bounds on quantum query complexity, and they have so far been considered as unrelated approaches. Here, we show an explicit reduction from the polynomial method to the multiplicative adversary method. The proof goes by extending ... more >>>

TR13-164 | 28th November 2013
Scott Aaronson, Andris Ambainis, Kaspars Balodis, Mohammad Bavarian

Weak Parity

We study the query complexity of Weak Parity: the problem of computing the parity of an n-bit input string, where one only has to succeed on a 1/2+eps fraction of input strings, but must do so with high probability on those inputs where one does succeed. It is well-known that ... more >>>

TR14-061 | 21st April 2014
Raghav Kulkarni, Youming Qiao, Xiaoming Sun

Any Monotone Property of 3-uniform Hypergraphs is Weakly Evasive

For a Boolean function $f,$ let $D(f)$ denote its deterministic decision tree complexity, i.e., minimum number of (adaptive) queries required in worst case in order to determine $f.$ In a classic paper,
Rivest and Vuillemin \cite{rv} show that any non-constant monotone property $\mathcal{P} : \{0, 1\}^{n \choose 2} \to ... more >>>

TR14-155 | 21st November 2014
Scott Aaronson, Andris Ambainis

Forrelation: A Problem that Optimally Separates Quantum from Classical Computing

We achieve essentially the largest possible separation between quantum and classical query complexities. We do so using a property-testing problem called Forrelation, where one needs to decide whether one Boolean function is highly correlated with the Fourier transform of a second function. This problem can be solved using 1 quantum ... more >>>

TR15-068 | 21st April 2015
Swastik Kopparty, Noga Ron-Zewi, Shubhangi Saraf

High rate locally-correctable and locally-testable codes with sub-polynomial query complexity

Revisions: 2

In this work, we construct the first locally-correctable codes (LCCs), and locally-testable codes (LTCs) with constant rate, constant relative distance, and sub-polynomial query complexity. Specifically, we show that there exist binary LCCs and LTCs with block length $n$, constant rate (which can even be taken arbitrarily close to 1), constant ... more >>>

TR15-098 | 15th June 2015
Andris Ambainis, Kaspars Balodis, Aleksandrs Belovs, Troy Lee, Miklos Santha, Juris Smotrovs

Separations in Query Complexity Based on Pointer Functions

Revisions: 2

In 1986, Saks and Wigderson conjectured that the largest separation between deterministic and zero-error randomized
query complexity for a total boolean function is given by the function $f$ on $n=2^k$ bits defined by a complete binary tree
of NAND gates of depth $k$, which achieves $R_0(f) = O(D(f)^{0.7537\ldots})$. ... more >>>

TR15-108 | 30th June 2015
Shalev Ben-David

A Super-Grover Separation Between Randomized and Quantum Query Complexities

We construct a total Boolean function $f$ satisfying
$R(f)=\tilde{\Omega}(Q(f)^{5/2})$, refuting the long-standing
conjecture that $R(f)=O(Q(f)^2)$ for all total Boolean functions.
Assuming a conjecture of Aaronson and Ambainis about optimal quantum speedups for partial functions,
we improve this to $R(f)=\tilde{\Omega}(Q(f)^3)$.
Our construction is motivated by the Göös-Pitassi-Watson function
but does not ... more >>>

TR15-110 | 8th July 2015
Swastik Kopparty, Or Meir, Noga Ron-Zewi, Shubhangi Saraf

High-rate Locally-testable Codes with Quasi-polylogarithmic Query Complexity

Revisions: 1

An error correcting code is said to be \emph{locally testable} if
there is a test that checks whether a given string is a codeword,
or rather far from the code, by reading only a small number of symbols
of the string. Locally testable codes (LTCs) are both interesting
in their ... more >>>

TR15-175 | 5th November 2015
Scott Aaronson, Shalev Ben-David, Robin Kothari

Separations in query complexity using cheat sheets

We show a power 2.5 separation between bounded-error randomized and quantum query complexity for a total Boolean function, refuting the widely believed conjecture that the best such separation could only be quadratic (from Grover's algorithm). We also present a total function with a power 4 separation between quantum query complexity ... more >>>

TR15-203 | 13th December 2015
Scott Aaronson, Shalev Ben-David

Sculpting Quantum Speedups

Given a problem which is intractable for both quantum and classical algorithms, can we find a sub-problem for which quantum algorithms provide an exponential advantage? We refer to this problem as the "sculpting problem." In this work, we give a full characterization of sculptable functions in the query complexity setting. ... more >>>

TR16-063 | 18th April 2016
Pavel Hubacek, Eylon Yogev

Hardness of Continuous Local Search: Query Complexity and Cryptographic Lower Bounds

Revisions: 1

Local search proved to be an extremely useful tool when facing hard optimization problems (e.g. via the simplex algorithm, simulated annealing, or genetic algorithms). Although powerful, it has its limitations: there are functions for which exponentially many queries are needed to find a local optimum. In many contexts the optimization ... more >>>

TR16-084 | 23rd May 2016
Shalev Ben-David

Low-Sensitivity Functions from Unambiguous Certificates

We provide new query complexity separations against sensitivity for total Boolean functions: a power 3 separation between deterministic (and even randomized or quantum) query complexity and sensitivity, and a power 2.1 separation between certificate complexity and sensitivity. We get these separations by using a new connection between sensitivity and a ... more >>>

TR16-087 | 30th May 2016
Shalev Ben-David, Robin Kothari

Randomized query complexity of sabotaged and composed functions

We study the composition question for bounded-error randomized query complexity: Is R(f o g) = Omega(R(f) R(g)) for all Boolean functions f and g? We show that inserting a simple Boolean function h, whose query complexity is only Theta(log R(g)), in between f and g allows us to prove R(f ... more >>>

TR16-140 | 9th September 2016
Adam Bouland, Lijie Chen, Dhiraj Holden, Justin Thaler, Prashant Nalini Vasudevan

On SZK and PP

Revisions: 3

In both query and communication complexity, we give separations between the class NISZK, containing those problems with non-interactive statistical zero knowledge proof systems, and the class UPP, containing those problems with randomized algorithms with unbounded error. These results significantly improve on earlier query separations of Vereschagin [Ver95] and Aaronson [Aar12] ... more >>>

TR17-107 | 1st June 2017
Anurag Anshu, Dmitry Gavinsky, Rahul Jain, Srijita Kundu, Troy Lee, Priyanka Mukhopadhyay, Miklos Santha, Swagato Sanyal

A Composition Theorem for Randomized Query complexity

Revisions: 1

Let the randomized query complexity of a relation for error probability $\epsilon$ be denoted by $\R_\epsilon(\cdot)$. We prove that for any relation $f \subseteq \{0,1\}^n \times \mathcal{R}$ and Boolean function $g:\{0,1\}^m \rightarrow \{0,1\}$, $\R_{1/3}(f\circ g^n) = \Omega(\R_{4/9}(f)\cdot\R_{1/2-1/n^4}(g))$, where $f \circ g^n$ is the relation obtained by composing $f$ and $g$. ... more >>>

TR17-123 | 2nd August 2017
Dmitry Gavinsky, Rahul Jain, Hartmut Klauck, Srijita Kundu, Troy Lee, Miklos Santha, Swagato Sanyal, Jevgenijs Vihrovs

Quadratically Tight Relations for Randomized Query Complexity

Let $f:\{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}$ be a Boolean function. The certificate complexity $C(f)$ is a complexity measure that is quadratically tight for the zero-error randomized query complexity $R_0(f)$: $C(f) \leq R_0(f) \leq C(f)^2$. In this paper we study a new complexity measure that we call expectational certificate complexity $EC(f)$, which is ... more >>>

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