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Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity

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Reports tagged with Pseudorandomness:
TR95-056 | 26th November 1995
Oded Goldreich

Three XOR-Lemmas -- An Exposition

We provide an exposition of three Lemmas which relate
general properties of distributions
with the exclusive-or of certain bit locations.

The first XOR-Lemma, commonly attributed to U.V. Vazirani,
relates the statistical distance of a distribution from uniform
to the maximum bias of the xor of certain bit positions.
more >>>

TR96-030 | 31st March 1996
Meera Sitharam

Approximation from linear spaces and applications to complexity

We develop an analytic framework based on
linear approximation and point out how a number of complexity
related questions --
on circuit and communication
complexity lower bounds, as well as
pseudorandomness, learnability, and general combinatorics
of Boolean functions --
fit neatly into this framework. ... more >>>

TR96-067 | 20th December 1996
Oded Goldreich, Bernd Meyer

Computational Indistinguishability -- Algorithms vs. Circuits.

We present a simple proof to the existence of a probability ensemble
with tiny support which cannot be distinguished from the uniform ensemble
by any recursive computation.
Since the support is tiny (i.e, sub-polynomial),
this ensemble can be distinguish from the uniform ensemble
by a (non-uniform) family ... more >>>

TR00-014 | 16th February 2000
Matthias Krause, Stefan Lucks

On Learning versus Distinguishing and the Minimal Hardware Complexity of Pseudorandom Function Generators

A set $F$ of $n$-ary Boolean functions is called a pseudorandom function generator
(PRFG) if communicating
with a randomly chosen secret function from $F$ cannot be
efficiently distinguished from communicating with a truly random function.
We ask for the minimal hardware complexity of a PRFG. This question ... more >>>

TR00-056 | 20th July 2000
Oded Goldreich, Avi Wigderson

On Pseudorandomness with respect to Deterministic Observers.

In the theory of pseudorandomness, potential (uniform) observers
are modeled as probabilistic polynomial-time machines.
In fact many of the central results in
that theory are proven via probabilistic polynomial-time reductions.
In this paper we show that analogous deterministic reductions
are unlikely to hold. We conclude that randomness ... more >>>

TR02-047 | 3rd August 2002
Oded Goldreich

The GGM Construction does NOT yield Correlation Intractable Function Ensembles.

We consider the function ensembles emerging from the
construction of Goldreich, Goldwasser and Micali (GGM),
when applied to an arbitrary pseudoramdon generator.
We show that, in general, such functions
fail to yield correlation intractable ensembles.
Specifically, it may happen that, given a description of such a ... more >>>

TR03-045 | 8th June 2003
Oded Goldreich, Asaf Nussboim

On the Implementation of Huge Random Objects

Revisions: 1

We initiate a general study of pseudo-random implementations
of huge random objects, and apply it to a few areas
in which random objects occur naturally.
For example, a random object being considered may be
a random connected graph, a random bounded-degree graph,
or a random error-correcting code with good ... more >>>

TR03-080 | 12th November 2003
Venkatesan Guruswami

Better Extractors for Better Codes?

We present an explicit construction of codes that can be list decoded
from a fraction $(1-\eps)$ of errors in sub-exponential time and which
have rate $\eps/\log^{O(1)}(1/\eps)$. This comes close to the optimal
rate of $\Omega(\eps)$, and is the first sub-exponential complexity
construction to beat the rate of $O(\eps^2)$ achieved by ... more >>>

TR06-002 | 4th January 2006
Eyal Kaplan, Moni Naor, Omer Reingold

Derandomized Constructions of k-Wise (Almost) Independent Permutations

Constructions of k-wise almost independent permutations have been receiving a growing amount of attention in recent years. However, unlike the case of k-wise independent functions, the size of previously constructed families of such permutations is far from optimal.

In this paper we describe a method for reducing the size of ... more >>>

TR06-013 | 24th January 2006
Luca Trevisan

Pseudorandomness and Combinatorial Constructions

In combinatorics, the probabilistic method is a very powerful tool to prove the existence of combinatorial objects with interesting and useful properties. Explicit constructions of objects with such properties are often very difficult, or unknown. In computer science,
probabilistic algorithms are sometimes simpler and more efficient
than the best known ... more >>>

TR06-128 | 5th October 2006
Shankar Kalyanaraman, Chris Umans

On obtaining pseudorandomness from error-correcting codes.

A number of recent results have constructed randomness extractors
and pseudorandom generators (PRGs) directly from certain
error-correcting codes. The underlying construction in these
results amounts to picking a random index into the codeword and
outputting $m$ consecutive symbols (the codeword is obtained from
the weak random source in the case ... more >>>

TR07-059 | 6th July 2007
Shankar Kalyanaraman, Chris Umans

Algorithms for Playing Games with Limited Randomness

We study multiplayer games in which the participants have access to
only limited randomness. This constrains both the algorithms used to
compute equilibria (they should use little or no randomness) as well
as the mixed strategies that the participants are capable of playing
(these should be sparse). We frame algorithmic ... more >>>

TR07-069 | 29th July 2007
Ronen Shaltiel, Chris Umans

Low-end uniform hardness vs. randomness tradeoffs for AM

In 1998, Impagliazzo and Wigderson proved a hardness vs. randomness tradeoff for BPP in the {\em uniform setting}, which was subsequently extended to give optimal tradeoffs for the full range of possible hardness assumptions by Trevisan and Vadhan (in a slightly weaker setting). In 2003, Gutfreund, Shaltiel and Ta-Shma proved ... more >>>

TR08-045 | 23rd April 2008
Omer Reingold, Luca Trevisan, Madhur Tulsiani, Salil Vadhan

Dense Subsets of Pseudorandom Sets

A theorem of Green, Tao, and Ziegler can be stated (roughly)
as follows: if R is a pseudorandom set, and D is a dense subset of R,
then D may
be modeled by a set M that is dense in the entire domain such that D and
more >>>

TR09-018 | 8th March 2009
Yoav Tzur

$GF(2^n)$-Linear Tests versus $GF(2)$-Linear Tests

Comments: 1

A small-biased distribution of bit sequences is defined as one withstanding $GF(2)$-linear tests for randomness, which are linear combinations of the bits themselves. We consider linear combinations over larger fields, specifically, $GF(2^n)$ for $n$ that divides the length of the bit sequence. Indeed, this means that we partition the bits ... more >>>

TR09-088 | 29th September 2009
Shachar Lovett, Yoav Tzur

Explicit lower bound for fooling polynomials by the sum of small-bias generators

Recently, Viola (CCC'08) showed that the sum of $d$ small-biased distributions fools degree-$d$ polynomial tests; that is, every polynomial expression of degree at most $d$ in the bits of the sum has distribution very close to that induced by this expression evaluated on uniformly selected random bits. We show that ... more >>>

TR10-023 | 23rd February 2010
Adam Klivans, Homin Lee, Andrew Wan

Mansour’s Conjecture is True for Random DNF Formulas

Revisions: 3

In 1994, Y. Mansour conjectured that for every DNF formula on $n$ variables with $t$ terms there exists a polynomial $p$ with $t^{O(\log (1/\epsilon))}$ non-zero coefficients such that $\E_{x \in \{0,1\}}[(p(x)-f(x))^2] \leq \epsilon$. We make the first progress on this conjecture and show that it is true for several natural ... more >>>

TR10-033 | 6th March 2010
Shachar Lovett, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Amir Shpilka

Pseudorandom generators for $\mathrm{CC}_0[p]$ and the Fourier spectrum of low-degree polynomials over finite fields

In this paper we give the first construction of a pseudorandom generator, with seed length $O(\log n)$, for $\mathrm{CC}_0[p]$, the class of constant-depth circuits with unbounded fan-in $\mathrm{MOD}_p$ gates, for some prime $p$. More accurately, the seed length of our generator is $O(\log n)$ for any constant error $\epsilon>0$. In ... more >>>

TR11-038 | 10th March 2011
Jiapeng Zhang

On the query complexity for Showing Dense Model

A theorem of Green, Tao, and Ziegler can be stated as follows: if $R$ is a pseudorandom distribution, and $D$ is a dense distribution of $R,$ then $D$ can be modeled as a distribution $M$ which is dense in uniform distribution such that $D$ and $M$ are indistinguishable. The reduction ... more >>>

TR11-141 | 2nd November 2011
Salil Vadhan, Colin Jia Zheng

Characterizing Pseudoentropy and Simplifying Pseudorandom Generator Constructions

Revisions: 3

We provide a characterization of pseudoentropy in terms of hardness of sampling: Let $(X,B)$ be jointly distributed random variables such that $B$ takes values in a polynomial-sized set. We show that $B$ is computationally indistinguishable from a random variable of higher Shannon entropy given $X$ if and only if there ... more >>>

TR12-036 | 12th April 2012
Venkatesan Guruswami, Chaoping Xing

Folded Codes from Function Field Towers and Improved Optimal Rate List Decoding

We give a new construction of algebraic codes which are efficiently list decodable from a fraction $1-R-\epsilon$ of adversarial errors where $R$ is the rate of the code, for any desired positive constant $\epsilon$. The worst-case list size output by the algorithm is $O(1/\epsilon)$, matching the existential bound for random ... more >>>

TR12-057 | 7th May 2012
Russell Impagliazzo, Raghu Meka, David Zuckerman

Pseudorandomness from Shrinkage

Revisions: 2

One powerful theme in complexity theory and pseudorandomness in the past few decades has been the use of lower bounds to give pseudorandom generators (PRGs). However, the general results using this hardness vs. randomness paradigm suffer a quantitative loss in parameters, and hence do not give nontrivial implications for models ... more >>>

TR12-073 | 11th June 2012
Venkatesan Guruswami, Carol Wang

Linear-algebraic list decoding for variants of Reed-Solomon codes

Folded Reed-Solomon codes are an explicit family of codes that achieve the optimal trade-off between rate and list error-correction capability. Specifically, for any $\epsilon > 0$, Guruswami and Rudra presented an $n^{O(1/\epsilon)}$ time algorithm to list decode appropriate folded RS codes of rate $R$ from a fraction $1-R-\epsilon$ of ... more >>>

TR12-127 | 3rd October 2012
Eshan Chattopadhyay, Adam Klivans, Pravesh Kothari

An Explicit VC-Theorem for Low-Degree Polynomials

Let $X \subseteq \mathbb{R}^{n}$ and let ${\mathcal C}$ be a class of functions mapping $\mathbb{R}^{n} \rightarrow \{-1,1\}.$ The famous VC-Theorem states that a random subset $S$ of $X$ of size $O(\frac{d}{\epsilon^{2}} \log \frac{d}{\epsilon})$, where $d$ is the VC-Dimension of ${\mathcal C}$, is (with constant probability) an $\epsilon$-approximation for ${\mathcal C}$ ... more >>>

TR13-034 | 2nd March 2013
Louay Bazzi, Nagi Nahas

Small-bias is not enough to hit read-once CNF

Small-bias probability spaces have wide applications in pseudorandomness which naturally leads to the study of their limitations. Constructing a polynomial complexity hitting set for read-once CNF formulas is a basic open problem in pseudorandomness. We show in this paper that this goal is not achievable using small-bias spaces. Namely, we ... more >>>

TR13-060 | 10th April 2013
Venkatesan Guruswami, Swastik Kopparty

Explicit Subspace Designs

A subspace design is a collection $\{H_1,H_2,\dots,H_M\}$ of subspaces of ${\mathbf F}_q^m$ with the property that no low-dimensional subspace $W$ of ${\mathbf F}_q^m$ intersects too many subspaces of the collection. Subspace designs were introduced by Guruswami and Xing (STOC 2013) who used them to give a randomized construction of optimal ... more >>>

TR13-086 | 13th June 2013
Omer Reingold, Thomas Steinke, Salil Vadhan

Pseudorandomness for Regular Branching Programs via Fourier Analysis

Revisions: 1

We present an explicit pseudorandom generator for oblivious, read-once, permutation branching programs of constant width that can read their input bits in any order. The seed length is $O(\log^2 n)$, where $n$ is the length of the branching program. The previous best seed length known for this model was $n^{1/2+o(1)}$, ... more >>>

TR13-132 | 23rd September 2013
Michael Forbes, Ramprasad Saptharishi, Amir Shpilka

Pseudorandomness for Multilinear Read-Once Algebraic Branching Programs, in any Order

We give deterministic black-box polynomial identity testing algorithms for multilinear read-once oblivious algebraic branching programs (ROABPs), in n^(lg^2 n) time. Further, our algorithm is oblivious to the order of the variables. This is the first sub-exponential time algorithm for this model. Furthermore, our result has no known analogue in the ... more >>>

TR13-170 | 2nd December 2013
Venkatesan Guruswami, Carol Wang

Explicit rank-metric codes list-decodable with optimal redundancy

We construct an explicit family of linear rank-metric codes over any field ${\mathbb F}_h$ that enables efficient list decoding up to a fraction $\rho$ of errors in the rank metric with a rate of $1-\rho-\epsilon$, for any desired $\rho \in (0,1)$ and $\epsilon > 0$. Previously, a Monte Carlo construction ... more >>>

TR14-019 | 14th February 2014
Parikshit Gopalan, Amir Yehudayoff

Inequalities and tail bounds for elementary symmetric polynomials

This paper studies the elementary symmetric polynomials $S_k(x)$ for $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$. We show that if $|S_k(x)|,|S_{k+1}(x)|$ are small for some $k>0$ then $|S_\ell(x)|$ is also small for all $\ell > k$. We use this to prove probability tail bounds for the symmetric polynomials when the inputs are only $t$-wise ... more >>>

TR14-076 | 27th May 2014
Thomas Steinke

Pseudorandomness and Fourier Growth Bounds for Width 3 Branching Programs

Revisions: 1

We present an explicit pseudorandom generator for oblivious, read-once, width-$3$ branching programs, which can read their input bits in any order. The generator has seed length $\tilde{O}( \log^3 n ).$ The previously best known seed length for this model is $n^{1/2+o(1)}$ due to Impagliazzo, Meka, and Zuckerman (FOCS '12). Our ... more >>>

TR14-082 | 3rd June 2014
Yu Yu, Dawu Gu, Xiangxue Li

The Randomized Iterate Revisited - Almost Linear Seed Length PRGs from A Broader Class of One-way Functions

Revisions: 3

We revisit ``the randomized iterate'' technique that was originally used by Goldreich, Krawczyk, and Luby (SICOMP 1993) and refined by Haitner, Harnik and Reingold (CRYPTO 2006) in constructing pseudorandom generators (PRGs) from regular one-way functions (OWFs). We abstract out a technical lemma with connections to several recent work on cryptography ... more >>>

TR14-112 | 23rd August 2014
Louay Bazzi

Entropy of weight distributions of small-bias spaces and pseudobinomiality

Revisions: 1

A classical bound in Information Theory asserts that small $L_1$-distance between probability distributions implies small difference in Shannon entropy, but the converse need not be true. We show that if a probability distribution on $\{0,1\}^n$ has small-bias, then the converse holds for its weight distribution in the proximity of the ... more >>>

TR15-116 | 21st July 2015
Joshua Brakensiek, Venkatesan Guruswami, Samuel Zbarsky

Efficient Low-Redundancy Codes for Correcting Multiple Deletions

We consider the problem of constructing binary codes to recover from $k$-bit deletions with efficient encoding/decoding, for a fixed $k$. The single deletion case is well understood, with the Varshamov-Tenengolts-Levenshtein code from 1965 giving an asymptotically optimal construction with $\approx 2^n/n$ codewords of length $n$, i.e., at most $\log n$ ... more >>>

TR15-172 | 3rd November 2015
Benny Applebaum, Shachar Lovett

Algebraic Attacks against Random Local Functions and Their Countermeasures

Revisions: 1

Suppose that you have $n$ truly random bits $x=(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ and you wish to use them to generate $m\gg n$ pseudorandom bits $y=(y_1,\ldots, y_m)$ using a local mapping, i.e., each $y_i$ should depend on at most $d=O(1)$ bits of $x$. In the polynomial regime of $m=n^s$, $s>1$, the only known solution, ... more >>>

TR16-172 | 3rd November 2016
William Hoza, Adam Klivans

Preserving Randomness for Adaptive Algorithms

Revisions: 2

We introduce the concept of a randomness steward, a tool for saving random bits when executing a randomized estimation algorithm $\mathrm{Est}$ on many adaptively chosen inputs. For each execution, the chosen input to $\mathrm{Est}$ remains hidden from the steward, but the steward chooses the randomness of $\mathrm{Est}$ and, crucially, is ... more >>>

TR17-122 | 28th July 2017
Rohit Gurjar, Ben Lee Volk

Pseudorandom Bits for Oblivious Branching Programs

We construct a pseudorandom generator which fools read-$k$ oblivious branching programs and, more generally, any linear length oblivious branching program, assuming that the sequence according to which the bits are read is known in advance. For polynomial width branching programs, the seed lengths in our constructions are $\tilde{O}(n^{1-1/2^{k-1}})$ (for the ... more >>>

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