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TR01-033 | 27th April 2001 00:00

Uniform Circuits for Division: Consequences and Problems



Integer division has been known to lie in P-uniform TC^0 since
the mid-1980's, and recently this was improved to DLOG-uniform
TC^0. At the time that the results in this paper were proved and
submitted for conference presentation, it was unknown whether division
lay in DLOGTIME-uniform TC^0 (also known as FOM).
We obtain tight bounds on the
uniformity required for division, by showing that division is complete
for the complexity class FOM+POW obtained by augmenting FOM with
a predicate for powering modulo small primes. We also show that, under
a well-known number-theoretic conjecture (that there are many ``smooth''
primes), POW (and hence division) lies in FOM. Building on this work,
Hesse has shown recently that division is in FOM.

The essential idea in the fast parallel computation of division and
related problems is that of Chinese remainder representation (CRR) --
storing a number in the form of its residues modulo many small primes.
The fact that CRR operations can be carried out in log space has
interesting implications for small space classes. We define two
versions of s(n) space for s(n)=o(log n): dspace(s(n)) as the
traditional version where the worktape begins blank, and DSPACE(s(n))
where the space bound is established by endmarkers before the
computation starts. We present a new translational lemma, and derive
as a consequence that (for example), if one can improve the result of
Hartmanis & Berman that {0^n : n is prime} is not in dspace(loglog n)
to show that {0^n : n is prime} is not in DSPACE(loglog n), it would
follow that L is not equal to NP.

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