A celebrated theorem of Savitch states that NSPACE(S) is contained in DSPACE(S^2). In particular, Savitch gave a deterministic algorithm to solve ST-Connectivity (an NL-complete problem) using O({log}^2{n}) space, implying NL is contained in DSPACE({log}^2{n}). While Savitch's theorem itself has not been improved in the last four decades, several graph connectivity problems are shown to lie between L and NL, providing new insights into the space-bounded complexity classes. All the connectivity problems considered in the literature so far are essentially special cases of ST-Connectivity.

In the first half of this paper, we initiate the study of auxiliary PDAs as graph connectivity problems and define sixteen different "graph realizability problems" and study their relationships. The complexity of these connectivity problems lie between L and P. ST-Realizability, the most general graph realizability problem is P-complete. 1DSTREAL(poly), the most specific graph realizability problem is L-complete. As special cases of our graph realizability problems we define two natural problems, Balanced ST-Connectivity and Positive Balanced ST-Connectivity, that lie between L and NL.

In the second half of this paper, we study the space complexity of SGSLOGCFL, a graph realizability problem lying between L and LOGCFL. We define generalizations of graph squaring and transitive closure, present efficient parallel algorithms for SGSLOGCFL and use the techniques of Trifonov to show that SGSLOGCFL is contained in DSPACE(lognloglogn). This implies that Balanced ST-Connectivity is contained in DSPACE(lognloglogn). We conclude with several interesting new research directions.

A celebrated theorem of Savitch states that NSPACE(S) is contained DSPACE(S^2). In particular, Savitch gave a deterministic algorithm to solve ST-CONNECTIVITY (an NL-complete problem) using O(log^2{n}) space, implying NL is in DSPACE(log^2{n}). While Savitch’s theorem itself has not been improved in the last four decades, studying the space complexity of several special cases of ST-CONNECTIVITY has provided new insights into the space-bounded complexity classes.

In this paper, we introduce new kind of graph connectivity problems which we call graph realizability problems. All of our graph realizability problems are generalizations of UNDIRECTED ST-CONNECTIVITY. ST-REALIZABILITY, the most general graph realizability problem, is LogCFL-complete. We define the corresponding complexity classes that lie between L and LogCFL and study their relationships.

As special cases of our graph realizability problems we define two natural problems, BALANCED ST-CONNECTIVITY and POSITIVE BALANCED ST-CONNECTIVITY, that lie between L and NL. We present a deterministic O(lognloglogn) space algorithm for BALANCED ST-CONNECTIVITY. More generally we prove that SGSLogCFL, a generalization of BALANCED ST-CONNECTIVITY, is contained in DSPACE(lognloglogn). To achieve this goal we generalize several concepts (such as graph squaring and transitive closure) and algorithms (such as parallel algorithms) known in the context of UNDIRECTED ST-CONNECTIVITY.

A celebrated theorem of Savitch states that NSPACE(S) is contained DSPACE(S^2). In particular, Savitch gave a deterministic algorithm to solve ST-CONNECTIVITY (an NL-complete problem) using O(log^2{n}) space, implying NL is in DSPACE(log^2{n}). While Savitch’s theorem itself has not been improved in the last four decades, studying the space complexity of several special cases of ST-CONNECTIVITY has provided new insights into the space-bounded complexity classes.

In this paper, we introduce new kind of graph connectivity problems which we call graph realizability problems. All of our graph realizability problems are generalizations of UNDIRECTED ST-CONNECTIVITY. ST-REALIZABILITY, the most general graph realizability problem, is LogCFL-complete. We define the corresponding complexity classes that lie between L and LogCFL and study their relationships.

As special cases of our graph realizability problems we define two natural problems, BALANCED ST-CONNECTIVITY and POSITIVE BALANCED ST-CONNECTIVITY, that lie between L and NL. We present a deterministic O(lognloglogn) space algorithm for BALANCED ST-CONNECTIVITY. More generally we prove that SGSLogCFL, a generalization of BALANCED ST-CONNECTIVITY, is contained in DSPACE(lognloglogn). To achieve this goal we generalize several concepts (such as graph squaring and transitive closure) and algorithms (such as parallel algorithms) known in the context of UNDIRECTED ST-CONNECTIVITY.