TR19-038 Authors: Itay Berman, Akshay Degwekar, Ron D. Rothblum, Prashant Nalini Vasudevan

Publication: 10th March 2019 10:50

Downloads: 113

Keywords:

The polarization lemma for statistical distance ($\mathrm{SD}$), due to Sahai and Vadhan (JACM, 2003), is an efficient transformation taking as input a pair of circuits $(C_0,C_1)$ and an integer $k$ and outputting a new pair of circuits $(D_0,D_1)$ such that if $\mathrm{SD}(C_0,C_1)\geq\alpha$ then $\mathrm{SD}(D_0,D_1) \geq 1-2^{-k}$ and if $\mathrm{SD}(C_0,C_1) \leq \beta$ then $\mathrm{SD}(D_0,D_1) \leq 2^{-k}$. The polarization lemma is known to hold for any constant values $\beta < \alpha^2$, but extending the lemma to the regime in which $\alpha^2 \leq \beta < \alpha$ has remained elusive. The focus of this work is in studying the latter regime of parameters. Our main results are:

1. Polarization lemmas for different notions of distance, such as Triangular Discrimination ($\mathrm{TD}$) and Jensen-Shannon Divergence ($\mathrm{JS}$), which enable polarization for some problems where the statistical distance satisfies $\alpha^2 < \beta < \alpha$. We also derive a polarization lemma for statistical distance with any inverse-polynomially small gap between $\alpha^2$ and $\beta$ (rather than a constant).

2. The average-case hardness of the statistical difference problem (i.e., determining whether the statistical distance between two given circuits is at least $\alpha$ or at most $\beta$), for any values of $\beta < \alpha$, implies the existence of one-way functions. Such a result was previously only known for $\beta < \alpha^2$.

3. A (direct) constant-round interactive proof for estimating the statistical distance between any two distributions (up to any inverse polynomial error) given circuits that generate them.