Revision #1 Authors: Paul Beame, Sajin Koroth

Accepted on: 20th December 2022 02:14

Downloads: 148

Keywords:

Query-to-communication lifting theorems, which connect the query complexity of a Boolean function to the communication complexity of an associated `lifted' function obtained by composing the function with many copies of another function known as a gadget, have been instrumental in resolving many open questions in computational complexity. Several important complexity questions could be resolved if we could make substantial improvements in the input size required for lifting with the Index function, from its current near-linear size down to polylogarithmic in the number of inputs $N$ of the original function or, ideally, constant. The near-linear size bound was shown by Lovett, Meka, Mertz, Pitassi and Zhang using a recent breakthrough improvement on the Sunflower Lemma to show that a certain graph associated with the Index function of near-linear size is a disperser. They also stated a conjecture about the Index function that is essential for further improvements in the size required for lifting with Index using current techniques. In this paper we prove the following;

1) The conjecture of Lovett et al. is false when the size of the Index gadget is $\log N-\omega(1)$.

2) Also, the Inner-Product function, which satisfies the disperser property at size $O(\log N)$, does not have this property when its size is $\log N-\omega(1)$.

3) Nonetheless, using Index gadgets of size at least 4, we prove a lifting theorem for a restricted class of communication protocols in which one of the players is limited to sending parities of its inputs.

4) Using the ideas from this lifting theorem, we derive a strong lifting theorem from decision tree size to parity decision tree size. We use this to derive a general lifting theorem in proof complexity from tree-resolution size to tree-like $Res(\oplus)$ refutation size, which yields many new exponential lower bounds on such proofs.

TR22-173 Authors: Paul Beame, Sajin Koroth

Publication: 3rd December 2022 00:55

Downloads: 253

Keywords:

Query-to-communication lifting theorems, which connect the query complexity of a Boolean function to the communication complexity of an associated `lifted' function obtained by composing the function with many copies of another function known as a gadget, have been instrumental in resolving many open questions in computational complexity. Several important complexity questions could be resolved if we could make substantial improvements in the input size required for lifting with the Index function, from its current near-linear size down to polylogarithmic in the number of inputs $N$ of the original function or, ideally, constant. The near-linear size bound was shown by Lovett, Meka, Mertz, Pitassi and Zhang using a recent breakthrough improvement on the Sunflower Lemma to show that a certain graph associated with the Index function of near-linear size is a disperser. They also stated a conjecture about the Index function that is essential for further improvements in the size required for lifting with Index using current techniques. In this paper we prove the following;

1) The conjecture of Lovett et al. is false when the size of the Index gadget is $\log N-\omega(1)$.

2) Also, the Inner-Product function, which satisfies the disperser property at size $O(\log N)$, does not have this property when its size is $\log N-\omega(1)$.

3) Nonetheless, using Index gadgets of size at least 4, we prove a lifting theorem for a restricted class of communication protocols in which one of the players is limited to sending parities of its inputs.

4) Using the ideas from this lifting theorem, we derive a strong lifting theorem from decision tree size to parity decision tree size. We use this to derive a general lifting theorem in proof complexity from tree-resolution size to tree-like $Res(\oplus)$ refutation size, which yields many new exponential lower bounds on such proofs.