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Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity

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All reports by Author Ron Rothblum:

TR21-180 | 21st December 2021
Noga Ron-Zewi, Ron Rothblum

Proving as Fast as Computing: Succinct Arguments with Constant Prover Overhead

Succinct arguments are proof systems that allow a powerful, but untrusted, prover to convince a weak verifier that an input $x$ belongs to a language $L \in NP$, with communication that is much shorter than the $NP$ witness. Such arguments, which grew out of the theory literature, are now drawing ... more >>>

TR21-084 | 21st June 2021
Liron Bronfman, Ron Rothblum

PCPs and Instance Compression from a Cryptographic Lens

Modern cryptography fundamentally relies on the assumption that the adversary trying to break the scheme is computationally bounded. This assumption lets us construct cryptographic protocols and primitives that are known to be impossible otherwise. In this work we explore the effect of bounding the adversary's power in other information theoretic ... more >>>

TR21-032 | 5th March 2021
Justin Holmgren, Alex Lombardi, Ron Rothblum

Fiat-Shamir via List-Recoverable Codes (or: Parallel Repetition of GMW is not Zero-Knowledge)

Shortly after the introduction of zero-knowledge proofs, Goldreich, Micali and Wigderson (CRYPTO '86) demonstrated their wide applicability by constructing zero-knowledge proofs for the NP-complete problem of graph 3-coloring. A long-standing open question has been whether parallel repetition of their protocol preserves zero knowledge. In this work, we answer this question ... more >>>

TR21-029 | 1st March 2021
Inbar Kaslasi, Ron Rothblum, Prashant Nalini Vasudevan

Public-Coin Statistical Zero-Knowledge Batch Verification against Malicious Verifiers

Suppose that a problem $\Pi$ has a statistical zero-knowledge (SZK) proof with communication complexity $m$. The question of batch verification for SZK asks whether one can prove that $k$ instances $x_1,\ldots,x_k$ all belong to $\Pi$ with a statistical zero-knowledge proof whose communication complexity is better than $k \cdot m$ (which ... more >>>

TR20-157 | 21st October 2020
Guy Rothblum, Ron Rothblum

Batch Verification and Proofs of Proximity with Polylog Overhead

Suppose Alice wants to convince Bob of the correctness of k NP statements. Alice could send k witnesses to Bob, but as k grows the communication becomes prohibitive. Is it possible to convince Bob using smaller communication (without making cryptographic assumptions or bounding the computational power of a malicious Alice)? ... more >>>

TR20-147 | 24th September 2020
Inbar Kaslasi, Prashant Nalini Vasudevan, Guy Rothblum, Ron Rothblum, Adam Sealfon

Batch Verification for Statistical Zero Knowledge Proofs

Revisions: 1

A statistical zero-knowledge proof (SZK) for a problem $\Pi$ enables a computationally unbounded prover to convince a polynomial-time verifier that $x \in \Pi$ without revealing any additional information about $x$ to the verifier, in a strong information-theoretic sense.

Suppose, however, that the prover wishes to convince the verifier that $k$ ... more >>>

TR19-169 | 21st November 2019
Lijie Chen, Ron Rothblum, Roei Tell, Eylon Yogev

On Exponential-Time Hypotheses, Derandomization, and Circuit Lower Bounds

Revisions: 2

The Exponential-Time Hypothesis ($ETH$) is a strengthening of the $\mathcal{P} \neq \mathcal{NP}$ conjecture, stating that $3\text{-}SAT$ on $n$ variables cannot be solved in time $2^{\epsilon\cdot n}$, for some $\epsilon>0$. In recent years, analogous hypotheses that are ``exponentially-strong'' forms of other classical complexity conjectures (such as $\mathcal{NP}\not\subseteq\mathcal{BPP}$ or $co\text{-}\mathcal{NP}\not\subseteq \mathcal{NP}$) have ... more >>>

TR19-127 | 19th September 2019
Noga Ron-Zewi, Ron Rothblum

Local Proofs Approaching the Witness Length

Revisions: 1

Interactive oracle proofs (IOPs) are a hybrid between interactive proofs and PCPs. In an IOP the prover is allowed to interact with a verifier (like in an interactive proof) by sending relatively long messages to the verifier, who in turn is only allowed to query a few of the bits ... more >>>

TR18-161 | 13th September 2018
Justin Holmgren, Ron Rothblum

Delegating Computations with (almost) Minimal Time and Space Overhead

The problem of verifiable delegation of computation considers a setting in which a client wishes to outsource an expensive computation to a powerful, but untrusted, server. Since the client does not trust the server, we would like the server to certify the correctness of the result. Delegation has emerged as ... more >>>

TR18-022 | 1st February 2018
Omer Reingold, Guy Rothblum, Ron Rothblum

Efficient Batch Verification for UP

Consider a setting in which a prover wants to convince a verifier of the correctness of k NP statements. For example, the prover wants to convince the verifier that k given integers N_1,...,N_k are all RSA moduli (i.e., products of equal length primes). Clearly this problem can be solved by ... more >>>

TR17-172 | 3rd November 2017
Itay Berman, Akshay Degwekar, Ron Rothblum, Prashant Nalini Vasudevan

From Laconic Zero-Knowledge to Public-Key Cryptography

Since its inception, public-key encryption (PKE) has been one of the main cornerstones of cryptography. A central goal in cryptographic research is to understand the foundations of public-key encryption and in particular, base its existence on a natural and generic complexity-theoretic assumption. An intriguing candidate for such an assumption is ... more >>>

TR17-143 | 26th September 2017
Tom Gur, Govind Ramnarayan, Ron Rothblum

Relaxed Locally Correctable Codes

Revisions: 1

Locally decodable codes (LDCs) and locally correctable codes (LCCs) are error-correcting codes in which individual bits of the message and codeword, respectively, can be recovered by querying only few bits from a noisy codeword. These codes have found numerous applications both in theory and in practice.

A natural relaxation of ... more >>>

TR17-097 | 31st May 2017
Itay Berman, Akshay Degwekar, Ron Rothblum, Prashant Nalini Vasudevan

Multi Collision Resistant Hash Functions and their Applications

Revisions: 1

Collision resistant hash functions are functions that shrink their input, but for which it is computationally infeasible to find a collision, namely two strings that hash to the same value (although collisions are abundant).

In this work we study multi-collision resistant hash functions (MCRH) a natural relaxation of collision resistant ... more >>>

TR16-061 | 17th April 2016
Omer Reingold, Ron Rothblum, Guy Rothblum

Constant-Round Interactive Proofs for Delegating Computation

Revisions: 2

The celebrated IP=PSPACE Theorem [LFKN92,Shamir92] allows an all-powerful but untrusted prover to convince a polynomial-time verifier of the validity of extremely complicated statements (as long as they can be evaluated using polynomial space). The interactive proof system designed for this purpose requires a polynomial number of communication rounds and an ... more >>>

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