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REPORTS > KEYWORD > COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY:
Reports tagged with Computational Complexity:
TR94-022 | 12th December 1994
Christoph Meinel, Stephan Waack

The Möbius Function, Variations Ranks, and Theta(n)--Bounds on the Modular Communication Complexity of the Undirected Graph Connectivity Problem

We prove that the modular communication complexity of the
undirected graph connectivity problem UCONN equals Theta(n),
in contrast to the well-known Theta(n*log n) bound in the
deterministic case, and to the Omega(n*loglog n) lower bound
in the nondeterministic case, recently proved by ... more >>>


TR94-021 | 12th December 1994
Lance Fortnow

My Favorite Ten Complexity Theorems of the Past Decade

We review the past ten years in computational complexity theory by
focusing on ten theorems that the author enjoyed the most. We use
each of the theorems as a springboard to discuss work done in
various areas of complexity theory.

more >>>

TR95-027 | 30th May 1995
Frederic Green

Lower Bounds for Circuits with Mod Gates and One Exact Threshold Gate

We say an integer polynomial $p$, on Boolean inputs, weakly
$m$-represents a Boolean function $f$ if $p$ is non-constant and is zero (mod
$m$), whenever $f$ is zero. In this paper we prove that if a polynomial
weakly $m$-represents the Mod$_q$ function on $n$ inputs, where $q$ and $m$
more >>>


TR95-034 | 30th June 1995
Christoph Meinel, Stephan Waack

Lower Bounds for the Majority Communication Complexity of Various Graph Accessibility Problems

We investigate the probabilistic communication complexity
(more exactly, the majority communication complexity,)
of the graph accessibility problem GAP and
its counting versions MOD_k-GAP, k > 1.
Due to arguments concerning matrix variation ranks
and certain projection reductions, we prove
that, for any partition of the input variables,
more >>>


TR95-040 | 26th July 1995
Uri Zwick, Michael S. Paterson

The complexity of mean payoff games on graphs

We study the complexity of finding the values and optimal strategies of
MEAN PAYOFF GAMES on graphs, a family of perfect information games
introduced by Ehrenfeucht and Mycielski and considered by Gurvich,
Karzanov and Khachiyan. We describe a pseudo-polynomial time algorithm
for the solution of such games, the decision ... more >>>


TR96-005 | 9th January 1996
Hans-Joerg Burtschick, Heribert Vollmer

Lindstroem Quantifiers and Leaf Language Definability

Revisions: 1


We show that examinations of the expressive power of logical formulae
enriched by Lindstroem quantifiers over ordered finite structures
have a well-studied complexity-theoretic counterpart: the leaf
language approach to define complexity classes. Model classes of
formulae with Lindstroem quantifiers are nothing else than leaf
language definable sets. Along the ... more >>>


TR96-006 | 24th January 1996
Bernd Borchert, Antoni Lozano

Succinct Circuit Representations and Leaf Language Classes are Basically the same Concept

This note connects two topics of Complexity Theory: The
topic of succinct circuit representations initiated by
Galperin and Wigderson and the topic of leaf languages
initiated by Bovet, Crescenzi, and Silvestri. It will be
shown for any language that its succinct version is
more >>>


TR96-011 | 29th January 1996
Stephen A. Bloch, Jonathan F. Buss, Judy Goldsmith

Sharply Bounded Alternation within P

We define the sharply bounded hierarchy, SBHQL, a hierarchy of
classes within P, using quasilinear-time computation and
quantification over values of length log n. It generalizes the
limited nondeterminism hierarchy introduced by Buss and Goldsmith,
while retaining the invariance properties. The new hierarchy has
several alternative characterizations.

We define ... more >>>


TR96-015 | 12th December 1995
Edoardo Amaldi, Viggo Kann

On the approximability of some NP-hard minimization problems for linear systems

We investigate the computational complexity of two classes of
combinatorial optimization problems related to linear systems
and study the relationship between their approximability properties.
In the first class (MIN ULR) one wishes, given a possibly infeasible
system of linear relations, to find ... more >>>


TR96-021 | 13th February 1996
Yongge Wang

NP-hard Sets Are Superterse unless NP Is Small

We show that the class of sets which can be polynomial
time truth table reduced to some $p$-superterse sets has
$p$-measure 0. Hence, no $P$-selective set is $\le_{tt}^p$-hard
for $E$. Also we give a partial affirmative answer to
the conjecture by Beigel, Kummer and ... more >>>


TR96-027 | 20th February 1996
Lane A. Hemaspaandra, Ashish Naik, Mitsunori Ogihara, Alan L. Selman

Computing Solutions Uniquely Collapses the Polynomial Hierarchy

Is there an NP function that, when given a satisfiable formula
as input, outputs one satisfying assignment uniquely? That is, can a
nondeterministic function cull just one satisfying assignment from a
possibly exponentially large collection of assignments? We show that if
there is such a nondeterministic function, then the polynomial ... more >>>


TR96-031 | 30th April 1996

Networks of Spiking Neurons: The Third Generation of Neural Network Models

The computational power of formal models for
networks of spiking neurons is compared with
that of other neural network models based on
McCulloch Pitts neurons (i.e. threshold gates)
respectively sigmoidal gates. In particular it
is shown that networks of spiking neurons are
... more >>>


TR96-043 | 16th August 1996
Edmund Ihler

On polynomial time approximation schemes and approximation preserving reductions

We show that a fully polynomial time approximation scheme given
for an optimization problem can always be simply modified to a
polynomial time algorithm solving the problem optimally if the
computation model is the deterministic Turing Machine or the
logarithmic cost RAM and ... more >>>


TR96-045 | 28th August 1996
Bernd Borchert, Lane A. Hemaspaandra, Jörg Rothe

Powers-of-Two Acceptance Suffices for Equivalence and Bounded Ambiguity Problems

Comments: 2

We study EP, the subclass of NP consisting of those
languages accepted by NP machines that when they accept always have a
number of accepting paths that is a power of two. We show that the
negation equivalence problem for OBDDs (ordered binary decision
diagrams) ... more >>>


TR96-062 | 3rd December 1996
Sanjeev Khanna, Madhu Sudan, David P. Williamson

A Complete Characterization of the Approximability of Maximization Problems Derived from Boolean Constraint Satisfaction


In this paper we study the approximability of boolean constraint
satisfaction problems. A problem in this class consists of some
collection of ``constraints'' (i.e., functions
$f:\{0,1\}^k \rightarrow \{0,1\}$); an instance of a problem is a set
of constraints applied to specified subsets of $n$ boolean
variables. Schaefer earlier ... more >>>


TR96-064 | 11th December 1996
Sanjeev Khanna, Madhu Sudan, Luca Trevisan

Constraint satisfaction: The approximability of minimization problems.


This paper continues the work initiated by Creignou [Cre95] and
Khanna, Sudan and Williamson [KSW96] who classify maximization
problems derived from boolean constraint satisfaction. Here we
study the approximability of {\em minimization} problems derived
thence. A problem in this framework is characterized by a
collection F ... more >>>


TR97-001 | 8th January 1997
Marco Cesati, Luca Trevisan

On the Efficiency of Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes

A polynomial time approximation scheme (PTAS) for an optimization
problem $A$ is an algorithm that on input an instance of $A$ and
$\epsilon > 0$ finds a $(1+\epsilon)$-approximate solution in time
that is polynomial for each fixed $\epsilon$. Typical running times
are $n^{O(1/\epsilon)}$ or $2^{1/\epsilon^{O(1)}} ... more >>>


TR97-004 | 19th February 1997
Marek Karpinski, Alexander Zelikovsky

Approximating Dense Cases of Covering Problems

Comments: 1

We study dense instances of several covering problems. An instance of
the set cover problem with $m$ sets is dense if there is $\epsilon>0$
such that any element belongs to at least $\epsilon m$ sets. We show
that the dense set cover problem can be approximated with ... more >>>


TR97-006 | 31st January 1997
Marco Cesati, Miriam Di Ianni

Parameterized Parallel Complexity

Comments: 1

We consider the framework of Parameterized Complexity, and we
investigate the issue of which problems do admit efficient fixed
parameter parallel algorithms by introducing two different
degrees of efficiently parallelizable parameterized problems, PNC
and FPP. We sketch both some FPP-algorithms solving natural
parameterized problems and ... more >>>


TR97-009 | 12th March 1997
Jonathan F. Buss, Gudmund Skovbjerg Frandsen, Jeffrey O. Shallit

The Computational Complexity of Some Problems of Linear Algebra

We consider the computational complexity of some problems
dealing with matrix rank. Let E,S be subsets of a
commutative ring R. Let x_1, x_2, ..., x_t be variables.
Given a matrix M = M(x_1, x_2, ..., x_t) with entries
chosen from E union {x_1, x_2, ..., ... more >>>


TR97-024 | 9th June 1997
Marek Karpinski

Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes for Some Dense Instances of NP-Hard Optimization Problems

We survey recent results on the existence of polynomial time
approximation schemes for some dense instances of NP-hard
optimization problems. We indicate further some inherent limits
for existence of such schemes for some other dense instances of
the optimization problems.

more >>>

TR98-014 | 6th February 1998
Gunter Blache, Marek Karpinski, Juergen Wirtgen

On Approximation Intractability of the Bandwidth Problem

The bandwidth problem is the problem of enumerating
the vertices of a given graph $G$ such that the maximum difference
between the numbers of adjacent vertices is minimal. The problem
has a long history and a number of applications.
There was not ... more >>>


TR98-022 | 14th April 1998
Steffen Reith, Heribert Vollmer

The Complexity of Computing Optimal Assignments of Generalized Propositional Formulae

We consider the problems of finding the lexicographically
minimal (or maximal) satisfying assignment of propositional
formulae for different restricted formula classes. It turns
out that for each class from our framework, the above problem
is either polynomial time solvable or complete for ... more >>>


TR98-029 | 27th May 1998
Piotr Berman, Marek Karpinski

On Some Tighter Inapproximability Results

We prove a number of improved inaproximability results,
including the best up to date explicit approximation
thresholds for MIS problem of bounded degree, bounded
occurrences MAX-2SAT, and bounded degree Node Cover. We
prove also for the first time inapproximability of the
problem of Sorting by ... more >>>


TR98-038 | 9th July 1998
Marek Karpinski

On the Computational Power of Randomized Branching Programs

We survey some upper and lower bounds established recently on
the sizes of randomized branching programs computing explicit
boolean functions. In particular, we display boolean
functions on which randomized read-once ordered branching
programs are exponentially more powerful than deterministic
or nondeterministic read-$k$-times branching programs for ... more >>>


TR98-058 | 2nd August 1998
H. Buhrman, Dieter van Melkebeek, K.W. Regan, Martin Strauss, D. Sivakumar

A Generalization of Resource-Bounded Measure, With Application to the BPP vs. EXP Problem

We introduce "resource-bounded betting games", and propose
a generalization of Lutz's resource-bounded measure in which the choice
of next string to bet on is fully adaptive. Lutz's martingales are
equivalent to betting games constrained to bet on strings in lexicographic
order. We show that if strong pseudo-random number generators exist,
more >>>


TR98-059 | 15th September 1998
C. Lautemann, Pierre McKenzie, T. Schwentick, H. Vollmer

The Descriptive Complexity Approach to LOGCFL


Building upon the known generalized-quantifier-based first-order
characterization of LOGCFL, we lay the groundwork for a deeper
investigation. Specifically, we examine subclasses of LOGCFL arising
from varying the arity and nesting of groupoidal quantifiers. Our
work extends the elaborate theory relating monoidal quantifiers to
NC^1 and its subclasses. In the ... more >>>


TR98-064 | 6th November 1998
Wenceslas Fernandez de la Vega, Marek Karpinski

Polynomial Time Approximation of Dense Weighted Instances of MAX-CUT

We give the first polynomial time approximability characterization
of dense weighted instances of MAX-CUT, and some other dense
weighted NP-hard problems in terms of their empirical weight
distributions. This gives also the first almost sharp
characterization of inapproximability of unweighted 0,1
MAX-BISECTION instances ... more >>>


TR98-067 | 12th November 1998
Paul Beame

Propositional Proof Complexity: Past, Present and Future

Proof complexity, the study of the lengths of proofs in
propositional logic, is an area of study that is fundamentally connected
both to major open questions of computational complexity theory and
to practical properties of automated theorem provers. In the last
decade, there have been a number of significant advances ... more >>>


TR00-002 | 23rd December 1999
Michael Schmitt

Lower Bounds on the Complexity of Approximating Continuous Functions by Sigmoidal Neural Networks

We calculate lower bounds on the size of sigmoidal neural networks
that approximate continuous functions. In particular, we show that
for the approximation of polynomials the network size has to grow
as $\Omega((\log k)^{1/4})$ where $k$ is the degree of the polynomials.
This bound is ... more >>>


TR00-010 | 12th January 2000
Amitabha Roy, Christopher Wilson

Supermodels and Closed Sets

A {\em supermodel} is a satisfying assignment of a boolean formula
for which any small alteration, such as a single bit flip, can be
repaired by another small alteration, yielding a nearby
satisfying assignment. We study computational problems associated
with super models and some generalizations thereof. For general
formulas, ... more >>>


TR00-048 | 3rd July 2000
Beate Bollig

Restricted Nondeterministic Read-Once Branching Programs and an Exponential Lower Bound for Integer Multiplication

Branching programs are a well established computation model for
Boolean functions, especially read-once branching programs have
been studied intensively.
In this paper the expressive power of nondeterministic read-once
branching programs, i.e., the class of functions
representable in polynomial size, is investigated.
For that reason two restricted models of nondeterministic read-once
more >>>


TR00-061 | 14th August 2000
Prahladh Harsha, Madhu Sudan

Small PCPs with low query complexity

Most known constructions of probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs)
either blow up the proof size by a large polynomial, or have a high
(though constant) query complexity. In this paper we give a
transformation with slightly-super-cubic blowup in proof size, with a
low query complexity. Specifically, the verifier probes the proof ... more >>>


TR00-075 | 7th September 2000
Andreas Klein, Martin Kutrib

Deterministic Turing Machines in the Range between Real-Time and Linear-Time

Deterministic k-tape and multitape Turing machines with one-way,
two-way and without a separated input tape are considered. We
investigate the classes of languages acceptable by such devices with
time bounds of the form n+r(n) where r in o(n) is a sublinear
function. It is shown that there ... more >>>


TR00-081 | 5th September 2000
Shin Aida, Rainer Schuler, Tatsuie Tsukiji, Osamu Watanabe

On the difference between polynomial-time many-one and truth-table reducibilities on distributional problems

In this paper we separate many-one reducibility from truth-table
reducibility for distributional problems in DistNP under the
hypothesis that P neq NP. As a first example we consider the
3-Satisfiability problem (3SAT) with two different distributions
on 3CNF formulas. We show that 3SAT using a version of the
standard distribution ... more >>>


TR01-066 | 28th September 2001
Pavol Duris, Juraj Hromkovic, Stasys Jukna, Martin Sauerhoff, Georg Schnitger

On Multipartition Communication Complexity

We study k-partition communication protocols, an extension
of the standard two-party best-partition model to k input partitions.
The main results are as follows.

1. A strong explicit hierarchy on the degree of
non-obliviousness is established by proving that,
using k+1 partitions instead of k may decrease
the communication complexity from ... more >>>


TR01-073 | 24th October 2001
Beate Bollig, Philipp Woelfel, Stephan Waack

Parity Graph-driven Read-Once Branching Programs and an Exponential Lower Bound for Integer Multiplication

Revisions: 1


Branching programs are a well-established computation model
for Boolean functions, especially read-once branching programs
have been studied intensively. Exponential lower bounds for
deterministic and nondeterministic read-once branching programs
are known for a long time. On the other hand, the problem of
proving superpolynomial lower bounds ... more >>>


TR01-076 | 24th October 2001
Robert Albin Legenstein

On the Complexity of Knock-knee Channel-Routing with 3-Terminal Nets

In this article we consider a basic problem in the layout of
VLSI-circuits, the channel-routing problem in the knock-knee mode.
We show that knock-knee channel routing with 3-terminal nets is
NP-complete and thereby settling a problem that was open for more
than a decade. In 1987, Sarrafzadeh showed that knock-knee ... more >>>


TR01-103 | 14th December 2001
Dima Grigoriev, Edward Hirsch, Dmitrii V. Pasechnik

Complexity of semi-algebraic proofs

Revisions: 3

It is a known approach to translate propositional formulas into
systems of polynomial inequalities and to consider proof systems
for the latter ones. The well-studied proof systems of this kind
are the Cutting Planes proof system (CP) utilizing linear
inequalities and the Lovasz-Schrijver calculi (LS) utilizing
quadratic ... more >>>


TR02-014 | 10th December 2001
Klaus Weihrauch

Computational Complexity on Computable Metric Spaces

Revisions: 1

We introduce a new Turing machine based concept of time complexity for functions on computable metric spaces. It generalizes the ordinary complexity of word functions and the complexity of real functions studied by Ko \cite{Ko91} et al. Although this definition of ${\rm TIME}$ as the maximum of a generally infinite ... more >>>


TR02-068 | 10th December 2002
Tobias Riege, Jörg Rothe

Complexity of the Exact Domatic Number Problem and of the Exact Conveyor Flow Shop Problem

Revisions: 2

We prove that the exact versions of the domatic number problem are complete
for the levels of the boolean hierarchy over NP. The domatic number
problem, which arises in the area of computer networks, is the problem of
partitioning a given graph into a maximum number ... more >>>


TR03-059 | 18th May 2003
Harumichi Nishimura, Tomoyuki Yamakami

Polynomial time quantum computation with advice

Revisions: 2

Advice is supplementary information that enhances the computational
power of an underlying computation. This paper focuses on advice that
is given in the form of a pure quantum state. The notion of advised
quantum computation has a direct connection to non-uniform quantum
circuits and tally languages. The paper examines the ... more >>>


TR03-067 | 14th August 2003
Ran Raz

Multi-Linear Formulas for Permanent and Determinant are of Super-Polynomial Size

An arithmetic formula is multi-linear if the polynomial computed
by each of its sub-formulas is multi-linear. We prove that any
multi-linear arithmetic formula for the permanent or the
determinant of an $n \times n$ matrix is of size super-polynomial
in $n$.

more >>>

TR03-068 | 30th July 2003
Matthias Homeister

Lower Bounds for the Sum of Graph--driven Read--Once Parity Branching Programs

We prove the first lower bound for restricted read-once parity branching
programs with unlimited parity nondeterminism where for each input the
variables may be tested according to several orderings.

Proving a superpolynomial lower bound for read-once parity branching
programs is still a challenging open problem. The following variant ... more >>>


TR04-029 | 7th April 2004
John Hitchcock, Maria Lopez-Valdes, Elvira Mayordomo

Scaled dimension and the Kolmogorov complexity of Turing hard sets

Scaled dimension has been introduced by Hitchcock et al (2003) in order to quantitatively distinguish among classes such as SIZE(2^{a n}) and SIZE(2^{n^{a}}) that have trivial dimension and measure in ESPACE.

more >>>

TR04-042 | 21st May 2004
Ran Raz

Multilinear-$NC_1$ $\ne$ Multilinear-$NC_2$

An arithmetic circuit or formula is multilinear if the polynomial
computed at each of its wires is multilinear.
We give an explicit example for a polynomial $f(x_1,...,x_n)$,
with coefficients in $\{0,1\}$, such that over any field:
1) $f$ can be computed by a polynomial-size multilinear circuit
of depth $O(\log^2 ... more >>>


TR04-047 | 22nd April 2004
Xiaoyang Gu

A note on dimensions of polynomial size circuits

In this paper, we use resource-bounded dimension theory to investigate polynomial size circuits. We show that for every $i\geq 0$, $\Ppoly$ has $i$th order scaled $\pthree$-strong dimension $0$. We also show that $\Ppoly^\io$ has $\pthree$-dimension $1/2$, $\pthree$-strong dimension $1$. Our results improve previous measure results of Lutz (1992) and dimension ... more >>>


TR04-055 | 27th May 2004
Kousha Etessami, Andreas Lochbihler

The computational complexity of Evolutionarily Stable Strategies

Game theory has been used for a long time to study phenomena in evolutionary biology, beginning systematically with the seminal work of John Maynard Smith. A central concept in this connection has been the notion of an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) in a symmetric two-player strategic form game. A regular ... more >>>


TR04-059 | 21st June 2004
Beatrice List, Markus Maucher, Uwe Schöning, Rainer Schuler

Randomized Quicksort and the Entropy of the Random Number Generator

The worst-case complexity of an implementation of Quicksort depends
on the random number generator that is used to select the pivot
elements. In this paper we estimate the expected number of
comparisons of Quicksort as a function in the entropy of the random
source. We give upper and lower bounds ... more >>>


TR04-111 | 30th November 2004
Piotr Berman, Marek Karpinski, Alexander D. Scott, Alexander D. Scott

Computational Complexity of Some Restricted Instances of 3SAT

We prove results on the computational complexity of instances of 3SAT in which every variable occurs 3 or 4 times.

more >>>

TR04-119 | 8th December 2004
Uriel Feige, Daniel Reichman

On The Hardness of Approximating Max-Satisfy

Max-Satisfy is the problem of finding an assignment that satisfies
the maximum number of equations in a system of linear equations
over $\mathbb{Q}$. We prove that unless NP$\subseteq $BPP there is no
polynomial time algorithm for the problem achieving an
approximation ratio of $1/n^{1-\epsilon}$, where $n$ is the number
of ... more >>>


TR05-008 | 11th December 2004
Neeraj Kayal

Recognizing permutation functions in polynomial time.

Let $\mathbb{F}_q$ be a finite field and $f(x) \in \mathbb{F}_q(x)$ be a rational function over $\mathbb{F}_q$.
The decision problem {\bf PermFunction} consists of deciding whether $f(x)$ induces a permutation on
the elements of $\mathbb{F}_q$. That is, we want to decide whether the corresponding map
$f : \mathbb{F}_q ... more >>>


TR05-010 | 8th December 2004
Olivier Powell

Almost Completeness in Small Complexity Classes

We constructively prove the existence of almost complete problems under logspace manyone reduction for some small complexity classes by exhibiting a parametrizable construction which yields, when appropriately setting the parameters, an almost complete problem for PSPACE, the class of space efficiently decidable problems, and for SUBEXP, the class of problems ... more >>>


TR05-024 | 8th February 2005
Michael Bauland, Elmar Böhler, Nadia Creignou, Steffen Reith, Henning Schnoor, Heribert Vollmer

Quantified Constraints: The Complexity of Decision and Counting for Bounded Alternation

We consider constraint satisfaction problems parameterized by the set of allowed constraint predicates. We examine the complexity of quantified constraint satisfaction problems with a bounded number of quantifier alternations and the complexity of the associated counting problems. We obtain classification results that completely solve the Boolean case, and we show ... more >>>


TR05-055 | 19th May 2005
Bruno Codenotti, Amin Saberi, Kasturi Varadarajan, Yinyu Ye

Leontief Economies Encode Nonzero Sum Two-Player Games

We give a reduction from any two-player game to a special case of
the Leontief exchange economy, with the property that the Nash equilibria of the game and the
equilibria of the market are in one-to-one correspondence.

Our reduction exposes a potential hurdle inherent in solving certain
families of market ... more >>>


TR05-074 | 8th June 2005
Li-Sha Huang, Xiaotie Deng

On Complexity of Market Equilibria with Maximum Social Welfare

We consider the computational complexity of the market equilibrium
problem by exploring the structural properties of the Leontief
exchange economy. We prove that, for economies guaranteed to have
a market equilibrium, finding one with maximum social welfare or
maximum individual welfare is NP-hard. In addition, we prove that
counting the ... more >>>


TR05-078 | 25th May 2005
Kooshiar Azimian, Javad Mohajeri, Mahmoud Salmasizadeh, Siamak Fayyaz

A Verifiable Partial Key Escrow, Based on McCurley Encryption Scheme

Revisions: 1

In this paper, firstly we propose two new concepts concerning the notion of key escrow encryption schemes: provable partiality and independency. Roughly speaking we say that a scheme has provable partiality if existing polynomial time algorithm for recovering the secret knowing escrowed information implies a polynomial time algorithm that can ... more >>>


TR05-089 | 30th July 2005
Xiaoyang Gu, Jack H. Lutz, Philippe Moser

Dimensions of Copeland-Erdos Sequences

The base-$k$ {\em Copeland-Erd\"os sequence} given by an infinite
set $A$ of positive integers is the infinite
sequence $\CE_k(A)$ formed by concatenating the base-$k$
representations of the elements of $A$ in numerical
order. This paper concerns the following four
quantities.
\begin{enumerate}[$\bullet$]
\item
The {\em finite-state dimension} $\dimfs (\CE_k(A))$,
a finite-state ... more >>>


TR05-090 | 17th August 2005
Paul Goldberg, Christos H. Papadimitriou

Reducibility Among Equilibrium Problems

We address the fundamental question of whether the Nash equilibria of
a game can be computed in polynomial time. We describe certain
efficient reductions between this problem for
normal form games with a fixed number of players
and graphical games with fixed degree. Our main result is that ... more >>>


TR05-113 | 12th September 2005
Bernhard Fuchs

On the Hardness of Range Assignment Problems

We investigate the computational hardness of the {\sc Connectivity},
the {\sc Strong Connectivity} and the {\sc Broadcast} type of Range
Assignment Problems in $\R^2$ and $\R^3$.
We present new reductions for the {\sc Connectivity} problem, which
are easily adapted to suit the other two problems. All reductions
are considerably simpler ... more >>>


TR05-143 | 29th November 2005
Parikshit Gopalan

Constructing Ramsey Graphs from Boolean Function Representations

Explicit construction of Ramsey graphs or graphs with no large clique or independent set has remained a challenging open problem for a long time. While Erdos's probabilistic argument shows the existence of graphs on 2^n vertices with no clique or independent set of size 2n, the best known explicit constructions ... more >>>


TR05-147 | 5th December 2005
Christian Glaßer, Stephen Travers

Machines that can Output Empty Words

We propose the e-model for leaf languages which generalizes the known balanced and unbalanced concepts. Inspired by the neutral behavior of rejecting paths of NP machines, we allow transducers to output empty words.

The paper explains several advantages of the new model. A central aspect is that it allows us ... more >>>


TR05-160 | 10th December 2005
Xiaoyang Gu, Jack H. Lutz

Dimension Characterizations of Complexity Classes

We use derandomization to show that sequences of positive $\pspace$-dimension -- in fact, even positive $\Delta^\p_k$-dimension
for suitable $k$ -- have, for many purposes, the full power of random oracles. For example, we show that, if $S$ is any binary sequence whose $\Delta^p_3$-dimension is positive, then $\BPP\subseteq \P^S$ and, moreover, ... more >>>


TR06-014 | 20th December 2005
Argimiro Arratia, Carlos E. Ortiz

On a syntactic approximation to logics that capture complexity classes

We formulate a formal syntax of approximate formulas for the logic with counting
quantifiers, $\mathcal{SOLP}$, studied by us in \cite{aaco06}, where we showed the
following facts:
$(i)$ In the presence of a built--in (linear) order, $\mathcal{SOLP}$ can
describe {\bf NP}--complete problems and fragments of it capture classes like
{\bf P} ... more >>>


TR06-027 | 22nd February 2006
Hermann Gruber, Markus Holzer

Finding Lower Bounds for Nondeterministic State Complexity is Hard

We investigate the following lower bound methods for regular
languages: The fooling set technique, the extended fooling set
technique, and the biclique edge cover technique. It is shown that
the maximal attainable lower bound for each of the above mentioned
techniques can be algorithmically deduced from ... more >>>


TR06-052 | 15th April 2006
Wenbin Chen, Jiangtao Meng

Inapproximability Results for the Closest Vector Problem with Preprocessing over infty Norm

We show that the Closest Vector
Problem with Preprocessing over infty Norm
is NP-hard to approximate to within a factor of $(\log
n)^{1/2-\epsilon}$. The result is the same as Regev and Rosen' result, but our proof methods are different from theirs. Their
reductions are based on norm embeddings. However, ... more >>>


TR06-060 | 4th May 2006
Ran Raz, Amir Shpilka, Amir Yehudayoff

A Lower Bound for the Size of Syntactically Multilinear Arithmetic Circuits

We construct an explicit polynomial $f(x_1,...,x_n)$, with
coefficients in ${0,1}$, such that the size of any syntactically
multilinear arithmetic circuit computing $f$ is at least
$\Omega( n^{4/3} / log^2(n) )$. The lower bound holds over any field.

more >>>

TR06-091 | 29th May 2006
Felix Brandt, Felix Fischer, Markus Holzer

Symmetries and the Complexity of Pure Nash Equilibrium

Strategic games may exhibit symmetries in a variety of ways. A common aspect of symmetry, enabling the compact representation of games even when the number of players is unbounded, is that players cannot (or need not) distinguish between the other players. We define four classes of symmetric games by considering ... more >>>


TR06-133 | 14th October 2006
Alex Hertel, Alasdair Urquhart

The Resolution Width Problem is EXPTIME-Complete

The importance of {\em width} as a resource in resolution theorem proving
has been emphasized in work of Ben-Sasson and Wigderson. Their results show that lower
bounds on the size of resolution refutations can be proved in a uniform manner by
demonstrating lower bounds on the width ... more >>>


TR06-153 | 19th October 2006
Michael Bauland, Thomas Schneider, Henning Schnoor, Ilka Schnoor, Heribert Vollmer

The Complexity of Generalized Satisfiability for Linear Temporal Logic

Revisions: 1


In a seminal paper from 1985, Sistla and Clarke showed
that satisfiability for Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) is either
NP-complete or PSPACE-complete, depending on the set of temporal
operators used

If, in contrast, the set of propositional operators is restricted, the
complexity may ... more >>>


TR07-023 | 26th February 2007
Heribert Vollmer, Michael Bauland, Elmar Böhler, Nadia Creignou, Steffen Reith, Henning Schnoor

The Complexity of Problems for Quantified Constraints

In this paper we will look at restricted versions of the evaluation problem, the model checking problem, the equivalence problem, and the counting problem for quantified propositional formulas, both with and without bound on the number of quantifier alternations. The restrictions are such that we consider formulas in conjunctive normal-form ... more >>>


TR07-045 | 24th April 2007
Heribert Vollmer

The complexity of deciding if a Boolean function can be computed by circuits over a restricted basis

We study the complexity of the following algorithmic problem: Given a Boolean function $f$ and a finite set of Boolean functions $B$, decide if there is a circuit with basis $B$ that computes $f$. We show that if both $f$ and all functions in $B$ are given by their truth-table, ... more >>>


TR07-049 | 1st June 2007
Beate Bollig, Niko Range, Ingo Wegener

Exact OBDD Bounds for some Fundamental Functions

Ordered binary decision diagrams (OBDDs) are nowadays the most common
dynamic data structure or representation type for Boolean functions.
Among the many areas of application are verification, model checking,
computer aided design, relational algebra, and symbolic graph algorithms.
Although many even exponential lower bounds on the OBDD size of Boolean ... more >>>


TR07-084 | 4th September 2007
Brendan Juba, Madhu Sudan

Universal Semantic Communication I

Is it possible for two intelligent beings to communicate meaningfully, without any common language or background? This question has interest on its own, but is especially relevant in the context of modern computational infrastructures where an increase in the diversity of computers is making the task of inter-computer interaction increasingly ... more >>>


TR07-110 | 24th October 2007
Beate Bollig

The Optimal Read-Once Branching Program Complexity for the Direct Storage Access Function

Branching programs are computation models
measuring the space of (Turing machine) computations.
Read-once branching programs (BP1s) are the
most general model where each graph-theoretical path is the computation
path for some input. Exponential lower bounds on the size of read-once
branching programs are known since a long time. Nevertheless, there ... more >>>


TR07-129 | 25th October 2007
Jeffrey C. Jackson, Homin Lee, Rocco Servedio, Andrew Wan

Learning Random Monotone DNF

We give an algorithm that with high probability properly learns random monotone t(n)-term
DNF under the uniform distribution on the Boolean cube {0, 1}^n. For any polynomially bounded function t(n) <= poly(n) the algorithm runs in time poly(n, 1/eps) and with high probability outputs an eps accurate monotone DNF ... more >>>


TR07-136 | 28th November 2007
Felix Brandt, Felix Fischer, Markus Holzer

Equilibria of Graphical Games with Symmetries

We study graphical games where the payoff function of each player satisfies one of four types of symmetries in the actions of his neighbors. We establish that deciding the existence of a pure Nash equilibrium is NP-hard in graphical games with each of the four types of symmetry. Using a ... more >>>


TR08-028 | 5th December 2007
Michael Bauland, Martin Mundhenk, Thomas Schneider, Henning Schnoor, Ilka Schnoor, Heribert Vollmer

The Tractability of Model-Checking for LTL: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Fragments

In a seminal paper from 1985, Sistla and Clarke showed
that the model-checking problem for Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) is either NP-complete
or PSPACE-complete, depending on the set of temporal operators used.
If, in contrast, the set of propositional operators is restricted, the complexity may decrease.
... more >>>


TR08-029 | 7th January 2008
Christian Glaßer, Christian Reitwießner, Victor Selivanov

The Shrinking Property for NP and coNP

We study the shrinking and separation properties (two notions well-known in descriptive set theory) for NP and coNP and show that under reasonable complexity-theoretic assumptions, both properties do not hold for NP and the shrinking property does not hold for coNP. In particular we obtain the following results.

1. NP ... more >>>


TR08-031 | 14th January 2008
James I. Lathrop, Jack H. Lutz, Matthew J. Patitz, Scott M. Summers

Computability and Complexity in Self-Assembly

This paper explores the impact of geometry on computability =
and complexity in
Winfree's model of nanoscale self-assembly. We work in the =
two-dimensional
tile assembly model, i.e., in the discrete Euclidean plane Z x Z. Our =
first
main theorem says that there is a roughly quadratic function f ... more >>>


TR08-077 | 23rd May 2008
Felix Brandt, Felix Fischer, Markus Holzer

On Iterated Dominance, Matrix Elimination, and Matched Paths

We study computational problems that arise in the context of iterated dominance in anonymous games, and show that deciding whether a game can be solved by means of iterated weak dominance is NP-hard for anonymous games with three actions. For the case of two actions, this problem can be reformulated ... more >>>


TR08-086 | 9th July 2008
Vikraman Arvind, Partha Mukhopadhyay

Quantum Query Complexity of Multilinear Identity Testing

Motivated by the quantum algorithm in \cite{MN05} for testing
commutativity of black-box groups, we study the following problem:
Given a black-box finite ring $R=\angle{r_1,\cdots,r_k}$ where
$\{r_1,r_2,\cdots,r_k\}$ is an additive generating set for $R$ and a
multilinear polynomial $f(x_1,\cdots,x_m)$ over $R$ also accessed as
a ... more >>>


TR08-095 | 31st October 2008
Brendan Juba, Madhu Sudan

Universal Semantic Communication II: A Theory of Goal-Oriented Communication

Revisions: 1

We continue the investigation of the task of meaningful communication among intelligent entities (players, agents) without any prior common language. Our generic thesis is that such communication is feasible provided the goals of the communicating players are verifiable and compatible. In a previous work we gave supporting evidence for this ... more >>>


TR09-022 | 16th February 2009
Jack H. Lutz, Elvira Mayordomo

Inseparability and Strong Hypotheses for Disjoint NP Pairs

Revisions: 1

This paper investigates the existence of inseparable disjoint
pairs of NP languages and related strong hypotheses in
computational complexity. Our main theorem says that, if NP does
not have measure 0 in EXP, then there exist disjoint pairs of NP
languages that are P-inseparable, in fact TIME(2^(n^k)-inseparable.
We also relate ... more >>>


TR09-045 | 20th May 2009
Iftach Haitner, Omer Reingold, Salil Vadhan, Hoeteck Wee

Inaccessible Entropy

We put forth a new computational notion of entropy, which measures the
(in)feasibility of sampling high entropy strings that are consistent
with a given protocol. Specifically, we say that the i'th round of a
protocol (A, B) has _accessible entropy_ at most k, if no
polynomial-time strategy A^* can generate ... more >>>


TR09-057 | 23rd June 2009
Yonatan Bilu, Nathan Linial

Are stable instances easy?

We introduce the notion of a stable instance for a discrete
optimization problem, and argue that in many practical situations
only sufficiently stable instances are of interest. The question
then arises whether stable instances of NP--hard problems are
easier to solve. In particular, whether there exist algorithms
that solve correctly ... more >>>


TR09-076 | 19th August 2009
Christian Glaßer, Christian Reitwießner, Maximilian Witek

Improved and Derandomized Approximations for Two-Criteria Metric Traveling Salesman

Revisions: 1

We improve and derandomize the best known approximation algorithm for the two-criteria metric traveling salesman problem (2-TSP). More precisely, we construct a deterministic 2-approximation which answers an open question by Manthey.

Moreover, we show that 2-TSP is randomized $(3/2+\epsilon ,2)$-approximable, and we give the first randomized approximations for the two-criteria ... more >>>


TR09-108 | 31st October 2009
Chongwon Cho, Chen-Kuei Lee, Rafail Ostrovsky

Equivalence of Uniform Key Agreement and Composition Insecurity

Revisions: 1

It is well known that proving the security of a key agreement protocol (even in a special case where the protocol transcript looks random to an outside observer) is at least as difficult as proving $P \not = NP$. Another (seemingly unrelated) statement in cryptography is the existence of two ... more >>>


TR10-160 | 28th October 2010
Zeev Dvir, Dan Gutfreund, Guy Rothblum, Salil Vadhan

On Approximating the Entropy of Polynomial Mappings

We investigate the complexity of the following computational problem:

Polynomial Entropy Approximation (PEA):
Given a low-degree polynomial mapping
$p : F^n\rightarrow F^m$, where $F$ is a finite field, approximate the output entropy
$H(p(U_n))$, where $U_n$ is the uniform distribution on $F^n$ and $H$ may be any of several entropy measures.

... more >>>

TR10-163 | 3rd November 2010
Harry Buhrman, Leen Torenvliet, Falk Unger, Nikolay Vereshchagin

Sparse Selfreducible Sets and Nonuniform Lower Bounds

It is well-known that the class of sets that can be computed by polynomial size circuits is equal to the class of sets that are polynomial time reducible to a sparse set. It is widely believed, but unfortunately up to now unproven, that there are sets in $EXP^{NP}$, or even ... more >>>


TR11-015 | 8th December 2010
Marcel R. Ackermann, Johannes Blömer, Christoph Scholz

Hardness and Non-Approximability of Bregman Clustering Problems

We prove the computational hardness of three k-clustering problems using an (almost) arbitrary Bregman divergence as dissimilarity measure: (a) The Bregman k-center problem, where the objective is to find a set of centers that minimizes the maximum dissimilarity of any input point towards its closest center, and (b) the Bregman ... more >>>


TR11-025 | 19th February 2011
Yang Li

Monotone Rank and Separations in Computational Complexity

Revisions: 1 , Comments: 1

In the paper, we introduce the concept of monotone rank, and using it as a powerful tool, we obtain several important and strong separation results in computational complexity.

\begin{itemize}

\item We show a super-exponential separation between monotone and non-monotone computation in the non-commutative model, and thus give the answer to ... more >>>


TR11-141 | 2nd November 2011
Salil Vadhan, Colin Jia Zheng

Characterizing Pseudoentropy and Simplifying Pseudorandom Generator Constructions

Revisions: 3

We provide a characterization of pseudoentropy in terms of hardness of sampling: Let $(X,B)$ be jointly distributed random variables such that $B$ takes values in a polynomial-sized set. We show that $B$ is computationally indistinguishable from a random variable of higher Shannon entropy given $X$ if and only if there ... more >>>


TR12-009 | 28th November 2011
Prabhu Manyem, Julien Ugon

Computational Complexity, NP Completeness and Optimization Duality: A Survey

We survey research that studies the connection between the computational complexity
of optimization problems on the one hand, and the duality gap between the primal and
dual optimization problems on the other. To our knowledge, this is the first survey that
connects the two very important areas. We further look ... more >>>


TR12-067 | 6th May 2012
Xiaohui Bei, Ning Chen, Shengyu Zhang

On the Complexity of Trial and Error

Revisions: 1

Motivated by certain applications from physics, biochemistry, economics, and computer science in which the objects under investigation are unknown or not directly accessible because of various limitations, we propose a trial-and-error model to examine search problems with unknown inputs. Given a search problem with a hidden input, we are asked ... more >>>


TR12-176 | 14th December 2012
Marek Karpinski, Andrzej Lingas, Dzmitry Sledneu

Optimal Cuts and Partitions in Tree Metrics in Polynomial Time

We present a polynomial time dynamic programming algorithm for optimal partitions in the shortest path metric induced by a tree. This resolves, among other things, the exact complexity status of the optimal partition problems in one dimensional geometric metric settings. Our method of solution could be also of independent interest ... more >>>


TR14-065 | 2nd May 2014
Andrzej Dudek , Marek Karpinski, Andrzej Rucinski, Edyta Szymanska

Approximate Counting of Matchings in $(3,3)$-Hypergraphs

We design a fully polynomial time approximation scheme (FPTAS) for counting the number of matchings (packings) in arbitrary 3-uniform hypergraphs of maximum degree three, referred to as $(3,3)$-hypergraphs. It is the first polynomial time approximation scheme for that problem, which includes also, as a special case, the 3D Matching counting ... more >>>


TR14-077 | 2nd June 2014
Andris Ambainis, Jevgenijs Vihrovs

Size of Sets with Small Sensitivity: a Generalization of Simon's Lemma

Revisions: 2

We study the structure of sets $S\subseteq\{0, 1\}^n$ with small sensitivity. The well-known Simon's lemma says that any $S\subseteq\{0, 1\}^n$ of sensitivity $s$ must be of size at least $2^{n-s}$. This result has been useful for proving lower bounds on sensitivity of Boolean functions, with applications to the theory of ... more >>>


TR14-116 | 6th September 2014
Rahul Mehta

2048 is (PSPACE) Hard, but Sometimes Easy

We prove that a variant of 2048, a popular online puzzle game, is PSPACE-Complete. Our hardness result
holds for a version of the problem where the player has oracle access to the computer player's moves.
Specifically, we show that for an $n \times n$ game board $G$, computing a
more >>>


TR14-167 | 11th November 2014
Beate Bollig

On the Minimization of (Complete) Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams

Ordered binary decision diagrams (OBDDs) are a popular data structure for Boolean functions.
Some applications work with a restricted variant called complete OBDDs
which is strongly related to nonuniform deterministic finite automata.
One of its complexity measures is the width which has been investigated
in several areas in computer science ... more >>>


TR15-021 | 5th February 2015
Stephen A. Fenner, Daniel Grier, Jochen Messner, Luke Schaeffer, Thomas Thierauf

Game Values and Computational Complexity: An Analysis via Black-White Combinatorial Games

A black-white combinatorial game is a two-person game in which the pieces are colored either black or white. The players alternate moving or taking elements of a specific color designated to them before the game begins. A player loses the game if there is no legal move available for his ... more >>>


TR15-076 | 28th April 2015
Mahdi Cheraghchi, Piotr Indyk

Nearly Optimal Deterministic Algorithm for Sparse Walsh-Hadamard Transform

For every fixed constant $\alpha > 0$, we design an algorithm for computing the $k$-sparse Walsh-Hadamard transform of an $N$-dimensional vector $x \in \mathbb{R}^N$ in time $k^{1+\alpha} (\log N)^{O(1)}$. Specifically, the algorithm is given query access to $x$ and computes a $k$-sparse $\tilde{x} \in \mathbb{R}^N$ satisfying $\|\tilde{x} - \hat{x}\|_1 \leq ... more >>>


TR15-148 | 9th September 2015
Marco L. Carmosino, Jiawei Gao, Russell Impagliazzo, Ivan Mikhailin, Ramamohan Paturi, Stefan Schneider

Nondeterministic extensions of the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis and consequences for non-reducibility

Revisions: 1

We introduce the Nondeterministic Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis
(NSETH) as a natural extension of the Strong Exponential Time
Hypothesis (SETH). We show that both refuting and proving
NSETH would have interesting consequences.

In particular we show that disproving NSETH would ... more >>>


TR16-031 | 7th March 2016
Titus Dose

Complexity of Constraint Satisfaction Problems over Finite Substsets of Natural Numbers

Revisions: 5

We study the computational complexity of constraint satisfaction problems that are based on integer expressions and algebraic circuits. On input of a finite set of variables and a finite set of constraints the question is whether the variables can be mapped onto finite subsets of natural numbers (resp., finite intervals ... more >>>


TR16-067 | 20th April 2016
Balagopal Komarath, Jayalal Sarma, Saurabh Sawlani

Pebbling Meets Coloring : Reversible Pebble Game On Trees

The reversible pebble game is a combinatorial game played on rooted DAGs. This game was introduced by Bennett (1989) motivated by applications in designing space efficient reversible algorithms. Recently, Chan (2013) showed that the reversible pebble game number of any DAG is the same as its Dymond-Tompa pebble number and ... more >>>


TR16-108 | 16th July 2016
Michael Rudow

Discrete Logarithm and Minimum Circuit Size

This paper shows that the Discrete Logarithm Problem is in ZPP^(MCSP) (where MCSP is the Minimum Circuit Size Problem). This result improves the previous bound that the Discrete Logarithm Problem is in BPP^(MCSP) Allender et al. (2006). In doing so, this paper helps classify the relative difficulty of the Minimum ... more >>>


TR17-086 | 9th May 2017
C Ramya, Raghavendra Rao B V

Linear Projections of the Vandermonde Polynomial

Revisions: 1

An n-variate Vandermonde polynomial is the determinant of the n × n matrix where the ith column is the vector (1, x_i , x_i^2 , . . . , x_i^{n-1})^T. Vandermonde polynomials play a crucial role in the in the theory of alternating polynomials and occur in Lagrangian polynomial interpolation ... more >>>




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