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TR15-188 | 24th November 2015 22:03
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#### Super-Linear Gate and Super-Quadratic Wire Lower Bounds for Depth-Two and Depth-Three Threshold Circuits

**Abstract:**
In order to formally understand the power of neural computing, we first need to crack the frontier of threshold circuits with two and three layers, a regime that has been surprisingly intractable to analyze. We prove the first super-linear gate lower bounds and the first super-quadratic wire lower bounds for depth-two linear threshold circuits with arbitrary weights, and depth-three majority circuits computing an explicit function.

$\bullet$ We prove that for all $\epsilon\gg \sqrt{\log(n)/n}$, the linear-time computable Andreev's function cannot be computed on a $(1/2+\epsilon)$-fraction of $n$-bit inputs by depth-two linear threshold circuits of $o(\epsilon^3 n^{3/2}/\log^3 n)$ gates, nor can it be computed with $o(\epsilon^{3} n^{5/2}/\log^{7/2} n)$ wires. This establishes an average-case ``size hierarchy'' for threshold circuits, as Andreev's function is computable by uniform depth-two circuits of $o(n^3)$ linear threshold gates, and by uniform depth-three circuits of $O(n)$ majority gates.

$\bullet$ We present a new function in $P$ based on small-biased sets, which we prove cannot be computed by a majority vote of depth-two linear threshold circuits with $o(n^{3/2}/\log^3 n)$ gates, nor with $o(n^{5/2}/\log^{7/2}n)$ wires.

$\bullet$ We give tight average-case (gate and wire) complexity results for computing PARITY with depth-two threshold circuits; the answer turns out to be the same as for depth-two majority circuits.

The key is a new random restriction lemma for linear threshold functions. Our main analytical tool is the Littlewood-Offord Lemma from additive combinatorics.