TR18-022 Authors: Omer Reingold, Guy Rothblum, Ron Rothblum

Publication: 1st February 2018 20:14

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Consider a setting in which a prover wants to convince a verifier of the correctness of k NP statements. For example, the prover wants to convince the verifier that k given integers N_1,...,N_k are all RSA moduli (i.e., products of equal length primes). Clearly this problem can be solved by simply having the prover send the k NP witnesses, but this involves a lot of communication. Can interaction help? In particular, is it possible to construct interactive proofs for this task whose communication grows sub-linearly with k?

Our main result is such an interactive proof for verifying the correctness of any k UP statements (i.e., NP statements that have a unique witness). The proof-system uses only a constant number of rounds and the communication complexity is $k^\delta \cdot poly( m )$, where $\delta>0$ is an arbitrarily small constant, $m$ is the length of a single witness, and the $poly$ term refers to a fixed polynomial that only depends on the language and not on $\delta$. The (honest) prover strategy can be implemented in polynomial-time given access to the k (unique) witnesses.

Our proof leverages ``interactive witness verification'' (IWV), a new type of proof-system that may be of independent interest. An IWV is a proof-system in which the verifier needs to verify the correctness of an NP statement using: (i) a sublinear number of queries to an alleged NP witness, and (ii) a short interaction with a powerful but untrusted prover. In contrast to the setting of PCPs and Interactive PCPs, here the verifier only has access to the raw NP witness, rather than some encoding thereof.