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Revision #1 to TR24-011 | 8th February 2024 21:51

Quantum Time-Space Tradeoffs for Matrix Problems

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Revision #1
Authors: Paul Beame, Niels Kornerup, Michael Whitmeyer
Accepted on: 8th February 2024 21:51
Downloads: 10
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Abstract:

We consider the time and space required for quantum computers to solve a wide variety of problems involving matrices, many of which have only been analyzed classically in prior work. Our main results show that for a range of linear algebra problems---including matrix-vector product, matrix inversion, matrix multiplication and powering---existing classical time-space tradeoffs, several of which are tight for every space bound, also apply to quantum algorithms with at most a constant factor loss. For example, for almost all fixed matrices $A$, including the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) matrix, we prove that quantum circuits with at most $T$ input queries and $S$ qubits of memory require $T=\Omega(n^2/S)$ to compute matrix-vector product $Ax$ for $x \in \{0,1\}^n$. We similarly prove that matrix multiplication for $n\times n$ binary matrices requires $T=\Omega(n^3 / \sqrt{S})$. Because many of our lower bounds are matched by deterministic algorithms with the same time and space complexity, our results show that quantum computers cannot provide any asymptotic advantage for these problems with any space bound.

We obtain matching lower bounds for the stronger notion of quantum cumulative memory complexity---the sum of the space per layer of a circuit.

We also consider Boolean (i.e. AND-OR) matrix multiplication and matrix-vector products, improving the previous quantum time-space tradeoff lower bounds for $n\times n$ Boolean matrix multiplication to $T=\Omega(n^{2.5}/S^{1/4})$ from $T=\Omega(n^{2.5}/S^{1/2})$.

Our improved lower bound for Boolean matrix multiplication is based on a new coloring argument that extracts more from the strong direct product theorem that was the basis for prior work. To obtain our tight lower bounds for linear algebra problems, we require much stronger bounds than strong direct product theorems. We obtain these bounds by adding a new bucketing method to the quantum recording-query technique of Zhandry that lets us apply classical arguments to upper bound the success probability of quantum circuits.



Changes to previous version:

Added improved lower bound for Boolean matrix multiplication and Michael Whitmeyer as an author.


Paper:

TR24-011 | 24th January 2024 20:44

Quantum Time-Space Tradeoffs for Matrix Problems


Abstract:

We consider the time and space required for quantum computers to solve a wide variety of problems involving matrices, many of which have only been analyzed classically in prior work. Our main results show that for a range of linear algebra problems---including matrix-vector product, matrix inversion, matrix multiplication and powering---existing classical time-space tradeoffs, several of which are tight for every space bound, also apply to quantum algorithms with at most a constant factor loss. For example, for almost all fixed matrices $A$, including the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) matrix, we prove that quantum circuits with at most $T$ input queries and $S$ qubits of memory require $T=\Omega(n^2/S)$ to compute matrix-vector product $Ax$ for $x \in \{0,1\}^n$. We similarly prove that matrix multiplication for $n\times n$ binary matrices requires $T=\Omega(n^3 / \sqrt{S})$. Because many of our lower bounds are matched by deterministic algorithms with the same time and space complexity, our results show that quantum computers cannot provide any asymptotic advantage for these problems with any space bound.

We obtain matching lower bounds for the stronger notion of quantum cumulative memory complexity---the sum of the space per layer of a circuit.

We also consider Boolean (i.e. AND-OR) matrix multiplication and matrix-vector products, improving the previous quantum time-space tradeoff lower bounds for $n\times n$ Boolean matrix multiplication to $T=\Omega(n^{2.5}/S^{1/3})$ from $T=\Omega(n^{2.5}/S^{1/2})$.

Our improved lower bound for Boolean matrix multiplication is based on a new coloring argument that extracts more from the strong direct product theorem that was the basis for prior work. To obtain our tight lower bounds for linear algebra problems, we require much stronger bounds than strong direct product theorems. We obtain these bounds by adding a new bucketing method to the quantum recording-query technique of Zhandry that lets us apply classical arguments to upper bound the success probability of quantum circuits.



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