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Revision #1 to TR23-117 | 23rd May 2024 13:49

Space-bounded quantum state testing via space-efficient quantum singular value transformation

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Revision #1
Authors: François Le Gall, Yupan Liu, Qisheng Wang
Accepted on: 23rd May 2024 13:50
Downloads: 16
Keywords: 


Abstract:

Driven by exploring the power of quantum computation with a limited number of qubits, we present a novel complete characterization for space-bounded quantum computation, which encompasses settings with one-sided error (unitary coRQL) and two-sided error (BQL), approached from a quantum (mixed) state testing perspective:
- The first family of natural complete problems for unitary coRQL, namely space-bounded quantum state certification for trace distance and Hilbert-Schmidt distance;
- A new family of (arguably simpler) natural complete problems for BQL, namely space-bounded quantum state testing for trace distance, Hilbert-Schmidt distance, and (von Neumann) entropy difference.

In the space-bounded quantum state testing problem, we consider two logarithmic-qubit quantum circuits (devices) denoted as $Q_0$ and $Q_1$, which prepare quantum states $\rho_0$ and $\rho_1$, respectively, with access to their ``source code''. Our goal is to decide whether $\rho_0$ is $\epsilon_1$-close to or $\epsilon_2$-far from $\rho_1$ with respect to a specified distance-like measure. Interestingly, unlike time-bounded state testing problems, which exhibit computational hardness depending on the chosen distance-like measure (either QSZK-complete or BQP-complete), our results reveal that the space-bounded state testing problems, considering all three measures, are computationally as easy as preparing quantum states. Furthermore, our algorithms on such problems with respect to the trace distance inspire an algorithmic Holevo-Helstrom measurement, implying QSZK is in QIP(2) with a quantum linear-space honest prover.

Our results primarily build upon a space-efficient variant of the quantum singular value transformation (QSVT) introduced by Gilyén, Su, Low, and Wiebe (STOC 2019), which is of independent interest. Our technique provides a unified approach for designing space-bounded quantum algorithms. Specifically, we show that implementing QSVT for any bounded polynomial that approximates a piecewise-smooth function incurs only a constant overhead in terms of the space required for (special forms of) the projected unitary encoding.



Changes to previous version:

v2: improved error and norm bounds in space-efficient polynomial approximation (Section 3.1), clarified the application scope of the robust oblivious amplitude amplification in Theorem 3.10, and added new results on algorithmic Holevo-Helstrom measurement and a slightly improved upper bound for QSZK (Section 5).


Paper:

TR23-117 | 9th August 2023 20:11

Space-bounded quantum state testing via space-efficient quantum singular value transformation





TR23-117
Authors: François Le Gall, Yupan Liu, Qisheng Wang
Publication: 13th August 2023 14:02
Downloads: 241
Keywords: 


Abstract:

Driven by exploring the power of quantum computation with a limited number of qubits, we present a novel complete characterization for space-bounded quantum computation, which encompasses settings with one-sided error (unitary coRQL) and two-sided error (BQL), approached from a quantum (mixed) state testing perspective:
- The first family of natural complete problems for unitary coRQL, namely space-bounded quantum state certification for trace distance and Hilbert-Schmidt distance;
- A new family of (arguably simpler) natural complete problems for BQL, namely space-bounded quantum state testing for trace distance, Hilbert-Schmidt distance, and (von Neumann) entropy difference.
In the space-bounded quantum state testing problem, we consider two logarithmic-qubit quantum circuits (devices) denoted as $Q_0$ and $Q_1$, which prepare quantum states $\rho_0$ and $\rho_1$, respectively, with access to their ``source code''. Our goal is to decide whether $\rho_0$ is $\epsilon_1$-close to or $\epsilon_2$-far from $\rho_1$ with respect to a specified distance-like measure. Interestingly, unlike time-bounded state testing problems, which exhibit computational hardness depending on the chosen distance-like measure (either QSZK-complete or BQP-complete), our results reveal that the space-bounded state testing problems, considering all three measures, are computationally as easy as preparing quantum states.
Our results primarily build upon a space-efficient variant of the quantum singular value transformation (QSVT) introduced by Gilyén, Su, Low, and Wiebe (STOC 2019), which is of independent interest. Our technique provides a unified approach for designing space-bounded quantum algorithms. Specifically, we show that implementing QSVT for any bounded polynomial that approximates a piecewise-smooth function incurs only a constant overhead in terms of the space required for (special forms of) the projected unitary encoding.



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