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TR23-142 | 21st September 2023 19:56

Provable Advantage in Quantum PAC Learning


Authors: Tom Gur, Wilfred Salmon, Sergii Strelchuk
Publication: 21st September 2023 23:52
Downloads: 161


We revisit the problem of characterising the complexity of Quantum PAC learning, as introduced by Bshouty and Jackson [SIAM J. Comput.
1998, 28, 1136–1153]. Several quantum advantages have been demonstrated in this setting, however, none are generic: they apply to particular concept classes and typically only work when the distribution that generates the data is known. In the general case, it was recently shown by Arunachalam and de Wolf [JMLR, 19 (2018) 1-36] that quantum PAC learners can only achieve constant factor advantages over classical PAC learners.

We show that with a natural extension of the definition of quantum PAC learning used by Arunachalam and de Wolf, we can achieve a generic advantage in quantum learning. To be precise, for any concept class $\mathcal{C}$ of VC dimension $d$, we show there is an $(\epsilon, \delta)$-quantum PAC learner with sample complexity
O\left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{\epsilon}}\left[d+ \log(\frac{1}{\delta})\right]\log^9(1/\epsilon)\right).
Up to polylogarithmic factors, this is a square root improvement over the classical learning sample complexity. We show the tightness of our result by proving an $\Omega(d/\sqrt{\epsilon})$ lower bound that matches our upper bound up to polylogarithmic factors.

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