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Revision #1 to TR18-081 | 25th April 2018 05:27

On Multilinear Forms: Bias, Correlation, and Tensor Rank

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Revision #1
Authors: Abhishek Bhrushundi, Prahladh Harsha, Pooya Hatami, Swastik Kopparty, Mrinal Kumar
Accepted on: 25th April 2018 05:27
Downloads: 69
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Abstract:

In this paper, we prove new relations between the bias of multilinear forms, the correlation between multilinear forms and lower degree polynomials, and the rank of tensors over $GF(2)= \{0,1\}$. We show the following results for multilinear forms and tensors.

1. Correlation bounds : We show that a random $d$-linear form has exponentially low correlation with low-degree polynomials. More precisely, for $d \ll 2^{o(k)}$, we show that a random $d$-linear form $f(X_1,X_2, \dots, X_d) : \left(GF(2)^{k}\right)^d \rightarrow GF(2)$ has correlation $2^{-k(1-o(1))}$ with any polynomial of degree at most $d/10$.

This result is proved by giving near-optimal bounds on the bias of random $d$-linear form, which is in turn proved by giving near-optimal bounds on the probability that a random rank-$t$ $d$-linear form is identically zero.

2. Tensor-rank vs Bias : We show that if a $d$-dimensional tensor has small rank,
then the bias of the associated $d$-linear form is large. More precisely, given any $d$-dimensional tensor $$T :\underbrace{[k]\times \ldots [k]}_{\text{$d$ times}}\to GF(2)$$ of rank at most $t$, the bias of the associated $d$-linear form
$$f_T(X_1,\ldots,X_d) := \sum_{(i_1,\dots,i_d) \in [k]^d} T(i_1,i_2,\ldots, i_d) X_{1,i_1}\cdot X_{1,i_2}\cdots X_{d,i_d}$$ is at least $\left(1-\frac1{2^{d-1}}\right)^t$. The above bias vs tensor-rank connection suggests a natural approach to proving nontrivial tensor-rank lower bounds for $d=3$. In particular, we use this approach to prove that the finite field multiplication tensor has tensor rank at least $3.52 k$ matching the best known lower bound for any explicit tensor in three dimensions over $GF(2)$.



Changes to previous version:

Typos and minor changes throughout the paper.


Paper:

TR18-081 | 20th April 2018 21:02

On Multilinear Forms: Bias, Correlation, and Tensor Rank


Abstract:

In this paper, we prove new relations between the bias of multilinear forms, the correlation between multilinear forms and lower degree polynomials, and the rank of tensors over $GF(2)= \{0,1\}$. We show the following results for multilinear forms and tensors.

1. Correlation bounds : We show that a random $d$-linear form has exponentially low correlation with low-degree polynomials. More precisely, for $d \ll 2^{o(k)}$, we show that a random $d$-linear form $f(X_1,X_2, \dots, X_d) : \left(GF(2)^{k}\right)^d \rightarrow GF(2)$ has correlation $2^{-k(1-o(1))}$ with any polynomial of degree at most $d/10$.

This result is proved by giving near-optimal bounds on the bias of random $d$-linear form, which is in turn proved by giving near-optimal bounds on the probability that a random rank-$t$ $d$-linear form is identically zero.

2. Tensor-rank vs Bias : We show that if a $d$-dimensional tensor has small rank,
then the bias of the associated $d$-linear form is large. More precisely, given any $d$-dimensional tensor $$T :\underbrace{[k]\times \ldots [k]}_{\text{$d$ times}}\to GF(2)$$ of rank at most $t$, the bias of the associated $d$-linear form
$$f_T(X_1,\ldots,X_d) := \sum_{(i_1,\dots,i_d) \in [k]^d} T(i_1,i_2,\ldots, i_d) X_{1,i_1}\cdot X_{1,i_2}\cdots X_{d,i_d}$$ is at most $\left(1-\frac1{2^{d-1}}\right)^t$. The above bias vs tensor-rank connection suggests a natural approach to proving nontrivial tensor-rank lower bounds for $d=3$. In particular, we use this approach to prove that the finite field multiplication tensor has tensor rank at least $3.52 k$ matching the best known lower bound for any explicit tensor in three dimensions over $GF(2)$.



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